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    • Join Date: Jul 2005
    • Posts: 928
    #1

    being or having been?

    Hi,

    could you please tell me in which cases "being" and in which "having been" is used? What´s the difference between the below sentences?

    E.g.:

    After being completed, the plan must be submitted to the board.
    After having been completed, the plan must be submitted to the board.

    Seeing it, he felt a bit sick.
    Having seen it, he felt a bit sick.

    Thank you very very much!

    Hanka

  1. rewboss's Avatar

    • Join Date: Feb 2006
    • Posts: 1,552
    #2

    Re: being or having been?

    In the first set of sentences, there is very little difference, except that in the second sentence, you don't need the word "after" -- the perfect aspect (have + past participle) carries the meaning of "after".

    In the second set, the first sentence means he felt sick as he saw it, but the second sentence means he first saw it, and then he felt sick.

    That example doesn't make the difference very clear, though. Here's a clearer example:

    Walking to the office, he felt thirsty. (He felt thirsty before he arrived at the office.)

    Having walked to the office, he felt thirsty. (He arrived at the office, and then he felt thirsty.)


    • Join Date: Jul 2005
    • Posts: 928
    #3

    Re: being or having been?

    So both sentences in the first pair are correct? And may both types be used when referring to past and to present or future?

    E.g.
    After being/having been completed, the plan had to be submitted to the board.
    After being/having been completed, the plan has/will have to be submitted to the board.

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