........I would like to ask native speakers of English the following things. They are pars of a passage.
For many ancient Central and South Americans, whether ( ) ( ) Inca, Maya, or Anasazi, astronomy was not a science as we tend to think of it. Rather, the movements of sun, moon, and stars were the journeys of gods personified. Watching the moon and stars moving, they thought gods were traveling in the night sky.
To observe and predict those paths of gods in the sky was to know the fates of kings and empires, to discern the proper days for rituals, to forecast animal migrations, the season of the life-giving rain, and the time for planting. The information must have been accumulated over generations and generations, the observers using naked-eye sighing techniques to discover the patterns of movement in the universe. Their knowledge reached a level comparable to that of ancient cultures of the Old World
They drew a picture which showed the earth’s surface, and in each quarter there were trees, animals, deities, and figures which represented time.
#1 whether (they)(were) If you are asking if these words are implied the answer is yes.
#2 What does that refer to? I think it is level. Because their knowledge reached a level which is comparable to the level of ancient cultures…
Yes, you are correct..."that" refers to "level"
#3 What is the Old World? I think in this case, the central and south America before Spain attacked. No, the "old world" refers to Europe. The Americas were the new world at that time as it had not been explored or discovered before by Europeans.
#4 What does quarter mean? I think it is corner. Probably the picture of the earth’s surface is square. I think you are right here....well done.
#5 What is the head?? of which? I think it is only figures. "Which" refers to "trees, animals, deities, and figures". If I only want the "which" clause to refer to "figures" I would write:
They drew a picture which showed the earth’s surface, and in each quarter there were trees, animals, deities, and figures representing time.
Thank you very much.
Student or Learner