TO: signifies orientation toward a goal. When the goal is physical, such as a destination, "to" implies movement in the direction of the goal. Example: Mary returned to her apartment.
When the goal is not a physical place, for instance, an action, "to" marks a verb; it is attached as an infinitive and expresses purpose. The preposition may occur alone or in the phrase in order. Example: I am going there to learn the language.
We use for when we measure time (seconds, minutes, hours, days, months, years).
He held his breath for seven minutes.
She's lived there for seven years.
The British and Irish have been quarreling for seven centuries.