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  1. Mad-ox's Avatar
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    #1

    Smile prefer, refer,focus

    hi,

    Do I always have to double the letter 'r' when these words ( prefer, refer ) are used in past tense or passive voice?

    For instance, He preferred/prefered himself than his sister.
    He referred/refered to me.
    The writer referred/refered to the plot. etc



    How about the word "focus": how is it corect?
    His most focused/focussed attemt to.....


    Madox


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    #2

    Re: prefer, refer,focus

    Hi,
    In two-syllable words we double the final consonant if the stress is on the last syllable, so we have -beginNing- but -visited-. You double it in prefer and refer but not in focus.
    (There are some differences between BrE and AmE, travel, cancel...) (I'm not a teacher).
    Hope you will find this useful.

  2. Mad-ox's Avatar
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    #3

    Re: prefer, refer,focus

    Quote Originally Posted by Wuisi View Post
    Hi,
    In two-syllable words we double the final consonant if the stress is on the last syllable, so we have -beginNing- but -visited-. You double it in prefer and refer but not in focus.
    (There are some differences between BrE and AmE, travel, cancel...) (I'm not a teacher).
    Hope you will find this useful.
    Thank you for your reply. I already knew these rules but the problem is that I have met with both words: referred and refered and that's why I am still puzzled about it!


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    #4

    Re: prefer, refer,focus

    I think it is a matter of misspelling. Refer is only referred in the past.

  3. RedMtl's Avatar
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    #5

    Smile Re: prefer, refer,focus

    Quote Originally Posted by Mad-ox View Post
    Thank you for your reply. I already knew these rules but the problem is that I have met with both words: referred and refered and that's why I am still puzzled about it!
    Focussed and focused are both correct. Part may be a British/American difference. Also, "focussed" is often seen as an adjective.

    The other two, as Anglika stated, were probably not spelled correctly wherever it was you saw them.


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    #6

    Re: prefer, refer,focus

    Quote Originally Posted by Wuisi View Post
    Hi,
    In two-syllable words we double the final consonant if the stress is on the last syllable, so we have -beginNing- but -visited-. You double it in prefer and refer but not in focus.
    (There are some differences between BrE and AmE, travel, cancel...) (I'm not a teacher).
    Hope you will find this useful.
    What Wuisi is saying is correct, you have to know the pronunciation, for words with two syllables or more that end in what is called a consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) combination (like preFER) double the last consonant only if the las syllable is stressed. e.g. prefér -> preferred and vísit -> visited.

    Also if you have one-syllable word with the CVC combination you double the last consonant. e.g. hop -> hopped and nag -> nagged.

    However do not double the last consonant if the word ends in w x or y. e.g. bow -> bowed and play -> played.

  4. Mad-ox's Avatar
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    #7

    Re: prefer, refer,focus

    hello,

    So, It means that the following is correct, am I right?

    Compossed of two books, originally published between........etc





    Madox

  5. Mad-ox's Avatar
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    #8

    Re: prefer, refer,focus

    However, I've just found in the Oxford dictionary : be composed of ( with one 's' )


    e.g The muscle is composed of two different types of protein.


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    #9

    Re: prefer, refer,focus

    Hi again,
    You should pay attention to stress and spelling (the last three words must be Consonant-vowel-consonant)
    Visit --> Visited (we don't double because of stress on the first syllable)
    Prefer --> PreferRed (we double because it meets both stress and pattern)

    COMPOSE (-OSE; it doesn't fit CVC pattern so it is COMPOSED )

    However, there is no telling with spelling and I wouldn't be surprised if anyone told you you can double it in certain regions or for certain purposes or something like that.
    Regards.

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