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  1. Lenka's Avatar

    • Join Date: May 2004
    • Posts: 863

    fall/increase (by) 5%

    Is there a rule about when the preposition "by" should be used (when talking about percents - falling, increasing, rising etc.)?

    I've read the sentences below in different articles today:
    1. ... profits rose 11 percent to 2.7bn dollars.
    2. Revenues increased 11.6 percent from 229bn dollars to 256bn dollars.
    3. They said pre-tax profit soared 18.5 percent at their stores.
    4. ... output has fallen by up to 20% in one year.

    My question is: when do you use "by" to say how much "by how many percent" something grew/fell etc.?
    Do you use "by" just with the verb "to fall"?

    • Join Date: Oct 2006
    • Posts: 19,398

    Re: fall/increase (by) 5%

    No rule that I am aware of.

    In your sentences, you could use "by" in #1-#3. In #4 you need "by" as it is part of the phrase "by up to ...."


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