In the name of the Merciful Allah,
Hi guys, please help me with this:"There are several reasons given for the use of terrorist activity. Among them are: to create high profile impact on the public with the goal of......; to make.........; to inflict......; and to create physical pain and paralyzing psychological emotions such as panic, chaos, unrest, fear, paranoia, anxiety, anger, grief, and a sense of tragedy." Well, I ask about "paralyzing", in a way, I see it as an adjective, despite I know it's not. It can't be a substitute for " to paralyze" at all, because the only meaning that make sense to me is to make these emotions exist, and not paralyzing them.
We would really need to see the full context, but I think the author is saying that terrrorist action has the effect of paralysing people's ability to feel. It is so shattering and unexpected that they exist only in the immediate present.
This is the full context:
1. Definition of terrorism
There is no single definition that adequately describes the many expressions of terrorism that have spread throughout history (Drummond, 2002; Laqueur, 1987). The main elements of terrorist action are the calculated use of unexpected, shocking, and unlawful violence against non-combatants in order to intimidate or coerce a government or civilian population to accept demands on behalf of an underlying ideology or cause.
There are several reasons given for the use of terrorist activity. Among them are: to create high profile impact on the public with the goal of undermining public confidence in their own government; to make routine social activity difficult; to inflict as much damage as possible; to seek vengeance; and to create physical pain and paralyzing psychological emotions such as panic, chaos, unrest, fear, paranoia, anxiety, anger, grief, and a sense of tragedy (Ardila, 2002; Furnish, 2005; Hudson, 1999; Lawal, 2002; McCauley, 2002; Reid, 2002; Thackrah, 2004).
I understand the whole meaning, Anglika. It is just the word "paralyzing" that confuses me. Please, look carefully at this :"....; and to create physical pain and paralyzing psychological emotions such as panic, chaos, unrest, fear, paranoia, anxiety, anger, grief, and a sense of tragedy.". You can see there is no semicolon any longer, between "and paralyzing" and "and to creat physical pain", which suggests that "paralyzing" belongs to "creat". So, the meaning is : "to creat paralyzing psych emotions such as...". But the problem is: "paralyzing" is not an adjective as far as I know. Can a verb form work as an adjective?
In a sense, I agree with you, Susiedqq. But all the adjectives that relates to the verb" paralyze", such as : paralyzed or paralytic, involve the meaning of being affected with paralysis for the noun that has this quality, rather than making somebody or something paralyzed. In addition, I've searched in many trusted dictionaries for " paralyzing" as an adjective, and the result is nothing.
My answer is that you must look at HOW the word is used in the sentence. You cannot assume that "paralyzing" is always a verb. English is not that restrictive! In your original sentence, it is used as an adjective.
Look at this simple word "run": running water running against the wind running for office running rampant
HOW it is used in the sentence is HOW it is defined as a part of speech.