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    #1

    word

    A growing reluctance to enter a calling that ends in destroying__________.
    a,careers and reputations b,career and reputation
    I think both are acceptable.But b seems better than a, right?

    By the end of this first quarter, the city had about 1,100 or so e-commerce websites.
    This is a test question which is needed to modify. is there any faults?
    Please
    Last edited by puzzle; 29-Apr-2008 at 05:38.


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    #2

    Re: word

    A growing reluctance to enter a calling that ends in destroying careers and reputations.
    It is referring to some vocation, which by its practice, many lives would be affected, not just one person's career and reputation.
    'calling' is a highly specific word to use, unless the writer is being scornful. I can't see how nuns or ministers could wreak such havoc. If we stretch it, neither could soldiers; and I don't think that anyone going into sleaze journalism would show any qualms or reluctance on ethical grounds.

    By the end of this first quarter, the city had about 1,100 or so e-commerce websites.

    The red is indicating some future time, but 'had' is past tense.
    The two possibilities are:

    By the end of this first quarter, the city will have about 1,100 or so e-commerce websites.

    At the end of the last quarter, the city had about 1,100 or so e-commerce websites.
    Last edited by David L.; 29-Apr-2008 at 06:04.

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    #3

    Re: word

    If we mention the past, we must use "at the end of", not "by the end of"?

    If can, how about this:
    By the end of first quarter, the city had about 1,100 or so e-commerce
    websites.

    Please


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    #4

    Re: word

    'by', when used this way in reference to time, indicates a deadline :

    " I've got to do this report by Monday"
    "You were supposed to have this report in by last Tuesday."


    or the end of a particular time period :
    "By now their plane should have just left Bangkok."
    'by now' in this sentence indicates the end of the time period between take-off in England, and this moment, now.
    In contrast, 'at' refers just to one definite moment in time, with no reference to a span of time leading up to it.

    So:
    "At the end of the last quarter, the city had about 1,100 or so e-commerce websites."
    (It is some time 1st April onwards.) Precisely, (on say) 31st March, we had checked the Internet and found 1,100 websites.

    "By the end of the last quarter, the city had about 1,100 or so e-commerce websites."
    This construction would be used if I had been writing:
    "Business has been booming in this city ever since the Olympic Games were held here 3 years ago, and by the end of the last quarter, the city had..."
    Can you see how it covers a span of time, over which business has been on the increase, and then brings it up to a definite moment, an end point, the 'end of a particular time period'?

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    #5

    Re: word

    Yes, I see now. Thank you very much! :)

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