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I am now translating a text .. I faced some problems with some words .. could anyone please help me and give me the meanings of the following words
here is the text .. I just need the words I bolded in red Lateral displacement resistance of various sleeper types Lateral displacement resistance of various ballast types
The lateral displacement resistance depends on the quality of the ballast. The following approximate values apply:
• round gravel, not fractured reduction: 30-35%
round gravel, fractured like ballast of grain size 1
• fine ballast (10x30) reduction: 5-10%
• coarse ballast (80x150) increase: 20%
• superelevated shoulder increase 40-60%
figure 16 shows the schematic distribution of force from wheel to subsoil. Based on the pressure of the sleeper on the ballast

The influence of the permanent-way condition (wear, fastening, track position) and of driving speed is

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