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    • Join Date: May 2008
    • Posts: 4
    #1

    With + noun +adjective

    There is a sentence:

    "About 20,790 people are listed as missing, with more than five million people homeless since the earthquake."
    from BBC:BBC NEWS | Asia-Pacific | Aftershocks demolish China homes


    In grammar,I haven't seen this form "with+noun+adjective".Or maybe the adjective is used to describe the noun but it can be put to the back of noun.I'm not sure.


    • Join Date: Aug 2006
    • Posts: 3,059
    #2

    Re: With + noun +adjective

    Quote Originally Posted by jerrychen View Post
    There is a sentence:

    "About 20,790 people are listed as missing, with more than five million people homeless since the earthquake."
    from BBC:BBC NEWS | Asia-Pacific | Aftershocks demolish China homes


    In grammar,I haven't seen this form "with+noun+adjective".Or maybe the adjective is used to describe the noun but it can be put to the back of noun.I'm not sure.
    It's a reduced relative clause, Jerry.

    "About 20,790 people are listed as missing, with more than five million people [who have been left] homeless since the earthquake."

    If it were fronted,

    ?? "About 20,790 people are listed as missing, with more than five million homeless people since the earthquake." ??

    it seems to carry a meaning more that it was a habitual homelessness, that they were homeless before the earthquake.


    • Join Date: May 2008
    • Posts: 4
    #3

    Re: With + noun +adjective

    But how can I guess the clause reduced?I mean why it's 'who has been left' instead of other meaning.From the context?

    Maybe we can get the lost part from the word 'missing' and 'with'.


    • Join Date: Aug 2006
    • Posts: 3,059
    #4

    Re: With + noun +adjective

    Quote Originally Posted by jerrychen View Post
    But how can I guess that the clause is reduced? I mean why it's 'who has been left' instead of other meaning.From the context?

    Maybe we can get the lost part from the word 'missing' and 'with'.
    That's an excellent question, Jerry, one I'm not completely certain I can answer fully or satisfactorily. But let me give it a whirl.

    We know that the people in your example are homeless because of the earthquake, not because they are poor.

    People who have no home because they are poor are "homeless people"; people who have no home because of an event like an earthquake are "people who are homeless".

    Fronted adjectives often describe a meaning of a habitual, routine, general, always type situations.

    Imagine some people in a park. One woman says to another woman;

    'The crying baby is mine'.

    'crying' is okay as a fronted adjective because crying is something babies normally do.

    Another woman says,

    ?? 'The running man is my husband'. ??

    This isn't the way a native speaker would describe this because it leaves the impression that 'running' is what this man does, that it's a habitual/routine action.

    'The man who is running is my husband' OR 'The man running is my husband'.

    To describe something other than routine/habitual/general event, a singular event we use relative clauses. Two of them, the passive, as in your example and 'ing' relative clauses, as in my examples, can be reduced.

    Again, I'll say that the adjective 'homeless' was put in a position behind the noun to differentiate the people who were made homeless by the earthquake from habitually homeless people.


    • Join Date: May 2008
    • Posts: 4
    #5

    Re: With + noun +adjective

    Thank you.

    In addition,according to what you said,if I can get the result that neither of these phrase has the same meaning:

    'the harmed person
    the person harmed=the person who is harmed
    the person being harmed=the person who is being harmed.
    the person having been harmed.=the person who has been harmed.'

    'the harmed person' maybe equal 'the person who is usually harmed or is always harmed or was harmed when he/she was a child and keep being harmed '

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