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I am really confused. Help me!!!
What is simple definition for 'phoneme'? How many?
Is it right to say that there are 44 sounds in English?
How many vowels and consonants are there?
How many are the phonectic symbols?
What is the difference between /t/ and (t)?
I don't want to be an expert. I would like to have some clarification. If you have any simple material to learn, pls send it to me - EMAIL REMOVED - Send PM to This User Instead
1. What is a phoneme?
phoneme - a difference in sound that makes a difference in meaning. A phoneme is abstract concept or category - you cannot see, touch, or hear a phoneme but you can point to instances. Where English speakers distinguish the phonemes /l/ and /r/; e.g., [lid] [rid], speakers of other languages may hear only one. [r] is not distinct from [l] in Japanese.2. Is it right to say that there are 44 sounds in English? How many vowels and consonants are there?
Spelling Society : How many phonemes?
Longman's pronunciation dictionary recognizes 45 (21v-24c) [www.awl-elt.com]. Longman's recognizes schwa but merges (a: and o). The combinations [hw] and [yu:] are not singled out. Five of the phonemes are r-combinations. If these are eliminated, the number of significant phonemes is reduced to 40.
ipachart5. What is the difference between /t/ and (t)?
Listen here (RP) Oxford University Press - Guide to English Phonetic symbols
Phonetic Chart of IPA symbols
/.../ used to represent phonemes
[...] used to represent sounds
(...) and <...> are used to represent letters
The word box is comprised of three letters and four sounds:
<bo>, <o>, <x>
[b], [a], [k], [s]
The letter <x> is pronounced [ks], with two sounds.
The following info is from Wikipedia. How can I explain this to learners of English?
The Longman Pronunciation Dictionary by John C. Wells, for example, using symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet, denotes 24 consonants and 23 vowels used in Received Pronunciation, plus two additional consonants and four additional vowels used in foreign words only. For General American it provides for 25 consonants and 19 vowels, with one additional consonant and three additional vowels for foreign words. The American Heritage Dictionary, on the other hand, suggests 25 consonants and 18 vowels (including r-colored vowels) for American English, plus one consonant and five vowels for non-English terms.