Student or Learner
I read these from True Pleasures by Lucinda Holdforth:
"I was accepted into the Foreign Affairs Department in 1987... our training course topics included Diplomatic dinners: how to make people feel at home who you wish were at home and What to do when Australians send their mad relatives to YOUR post."
What does "post" mean here? Why are YOUR typed in capital letters?
"Madame du Deffand and Voltaire shared a particular loathing for the fashionable philosopher, Jean-Jacques Rousseau."
What does "fashionable" mean here? That Rousseau was popular in his age?
"Fashionable" here does indeed mean that Rousseau was popular in his age as you have surmised.