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    #1

    Arrow Begining with " given"

    In the name of the Merciful Allah,
    Hi, please explain to me how a past participle like " given" in the following quote is used to begin a sentence. Is there something latent? what does " given" mean? Read this and tell me : Even when an infant is cooperative, how do researchers find out what the infant is thinking or feeling before language begins? Given the challenges imposed by these limitations, researchers have had to find creative ways to assess the infant's experience of the world. Thanks a lot ahead.


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    #2

    Re: Begining with " given"

    In this context it has the meaning "Taking into account" and acts as a preposition.

    This is an interesting discussion of this word: "given" - adjective/preposition? - WordReference Forums

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    #3

    Re: Beginning with " given"

    This discussion was so helpful. However, I've got confused when I read the example of the second definition of " given" as an adjective on given: Definition, Synonyms and Much More from Answers.com . Would you explain the difference?


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    #4

    Re: Begining with " given"

    It's sometimes difficult to differentiate.

    Given as preposition >> in view of/considering something. "Given the challenges" >>> "In view of/considering the challenges"

    Given as adjective >> [1] Disposed to do something >> Given to smiling aimlessly, he was regarded as stupid"
    [2] particular or specified >> "At a given time, you will come back".
    [3] assumed as actual >> "Given that all are equal..."

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    #5

    Re: Beginning with " given"

    I can't digest at all that "given" as an adjective meaning "declined to" in the example you mentioned. All I can see that the first phrase " given to smiling aimlessly" is the cause of such a label he has got. So, "given" here should refer to this meaning. I'm sorry, but all the examples I read online on "given" as an adjective meaning "declined to" are reasonable except yours.
    About the example I asked you on
    given: Definition, Synonyms and Much More from Answers.com
    I see "given" as a proposition, and not adjective, that means considering a particular thing, and not "granted". What do you think?
    Last edited by Egyption Arrow; 04-Jul-2008 at 03:31.

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