Student or Learner
Removing his coat, Jack rushed to the river.
Here removing is an adjective participle but when we ask: how jack rushed to the river, removing his coat.So why is it not called as adverb ?
How did jack rush to the river? He rushed to the river quietly. Here quietly modifies the verb "rushed".
I think Removing his coat is an adverbial (an adjunct) - modifying the sentence and explaining how/in what manner he rushed to the river.
I am not a teacher.
Last edited by colloquium; 14-Sep-2008 at 14:36.
The above sentence tells us when something happens, and not how or in what manner something is done.
Removing his coat (= When he was removing his coat), Jack rushed to the river. - Jack might still have had his coat on when he finally got to the river.
Having removed his coat, Jack rushed to the river. - Jack no longer had his coat on when he got to the river.
This is why I said 'of time or manner'. Your interpretation is possible, but it would also be possible to use the words 'Removing his coat' as an indication of the sequence of events, on the analogy of 'Arriving at Salzburg, he began the most productive years of his life'. This is not just a paraphrase of 'Having arrived', but implies an elided 'on': '[On] arriving...'
I skimmed over your first line.
Do you consider your second sentence to perform a similar function to the first? You have opposed the two sentences as though they provide some form of contrast, but it seems to me that the first explains what happened while he was rushing toward the river, and the second explains what happened before; they both seem to imply a reference to time. Was this your intention or am I wrong in making this judgment?
To me, an overt example of manner would be something along the lines of
Taking soft yet swift steps, Jack rushed to the river.
Adverbs tell when, where, and how, how many - so all these fit the examples given.
I think it is an adverbial phrase.