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    #1

    Question Is this a gerund?

    In the sentence "We ended up giving him all our money", is 'giving' a gerund? It doesn't seem to function as a nominal, but rather as an adverbial.

  1. BobK's Avatar
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    #2

    Re: Is this a gerund?

    Quote Originally Posted by CynthiaM View Post
    In the sentence "We ended up giving him all our money", is 'giving' a gerund? It doesn't seem to function as a nominal, but rather as an adverbial.
    Yes and no. It depends how you see the sentence. If 'giving him all our money' is the process you're focussing on, then 'giving' is a gerund. In being a process, it is nominal; but it's the head of an adverb phrase, so its function in the sentence is adverbial - it says more about the verb 'ended up'.

    If instead you're focussing on a picture, in which there are people who are giving someone all their money, then it's a present participle.

    This sort of fine distinction, I think, is what has led some scholars in the ELT field to use the term '-ing word'. It's not that they don't know the difference - as I once thought; it's that they don't feel there's any value making the distincion in current English (although in many other languages there is a clear formal distinction - eg Latin amans, amantis {pres. ppl}/amandum {gerund}).

    (As other teachers know, the technical stuff isn't my strong point. So I won't at all mind if someone wants to say I'm wrong. But that's how I see it; good question. )

    b

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    #3

    Re: Is this a gerund?

    Quote Originally Posted by CynthiaM View Post
    In the sentence "We ended up giving him all our money", is 'giving' a gerund? It doesn't seem to function as a nominal, but rather as an adverbial.
    Giving is a gerund there. We know this because end up is an aspectual verb:
    Aspectual Verbs

    Situations can be described from perspectives that focus on their beginning, their continuing or their ending. Aspectual verbs are used to indicate this, and consequently these situations don’t denote separate actions sequenced in time. Instead there is one event in focus, described from three different perspectives.

    19.
    a. We started working just after dawn.
    b. We stopped working around noon.
    c. Then we continued working after lunch.

    There is a strong preference for gerund complements, with many aspectual verbs taking only gerunds (particularly phrasal verbs).

    20.
    a. She finished singing, but the band carried on playing.
    b. He had to give up smoking, but the others kept doing it.
    c. Many started out dancing, but by the end only a few remained standing.

    Sources
    END UP

    http://www.mjcsmith.net/english/ESL/...%20gerunds.doc

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