Student or Learner
“Why do you think that you have what it takes to earn a management position in our company?”
I quoted this interview question from a book. Does "it takes" mean something you have?
Also, I think the sentence is rather long, Can I rephrase it into "What makes you think you can earn a management position in our company?" Does it have the same meaning?
A paraphrase is "Tell us why you think you have the necessary skills and ability to be given a management position in our company".
Your sentence is alright, as long as you understand that they want to know about your skills and abilities and qualifications.
For example a valid response to your question would be "Because my father owns the company!". But that is not a valid response to the original question.