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    #1

    Relative clause and gerund

    I wondered if there were any rules governing the use of gerunds instead of relative pronouns in sentences. What I mean is under what conditions that a gerund should be used instead of a relative pronoun "who/which", or vice versa. The following is one of the examples.

    "Any person witnessing (who witnessed) the accident should contact the police."
    "The police wanted to contact the man who witnessed the murder."

    Thank you.

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    #2

    Exclamation Re: Relative clause and gerund

    Quote Originally Posted by Deepurple View Post
    I wondered if there were any rules governing the use of gerunds instead of relative pronouns in sentences. What I mean is under what conditions that a gerund should be used instead of a relative pronoun "who/which", or vice versa. The following is one of the examples.

    "Any person witnessing (who witnessed) the accident should contact the police."
    "The police wanted to contact the man who witnessed the murder."

    Thank you.
    In the example sentence, the word witnessing is not a gerund, because it is not functioning as a noun. Please note, the present participle (ing) form will be a gerund if works as a noun. Here it is an adjective complimenting the subject “Any person”. In the second sentence “who witnessed the murder” is a relative adjective clause complimenting the object “the man”.
    A gerund has nothing to do with relative pronoun.
    When two verbs are used together in a sentence and since the subject can take one verb, the second verb is often in the gerund form (-ing /present participle form of the verb) or the infinitive. There are no specific rules concerning which verbs take which form. Like irregular verbs, you will need to learn which form a verb takes.

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    #3

    Re: Relative clause and gerund

    Quote Originally Posted by Manas Ranjan Mallick View Post
    In the example sentence, the word witnessing is not a gerund, because it is not functioning as a noun. Please note, the present participle (ing) form will be a gerund if works as a noun. Here it is an adjective complimenting the subject “Any person”. In the second sentence “who witnessed the murder” is a relative adjective clause complimenting the object “the man”.
    A gerund has nothing to do with relative pronoun.
    When two verbs are used together in a sentence and since the subject can take one verb, the second verb is often in the gerund form (-ing /present participle form of the verb) or the infinitive. There are no specific rules concerning which verbs take which form. Like irregular verbs, you will need to learn which form a verb takes.
    Manas Ranjan Mallick, thank you for your detailed explanation.
    But I would like to know if the "witnessing" in the first sentence could be replaced by "who witnessed", and the "who witnessed the murder" in the second one by "witnessing" instead. If so, do they have any differences in such exchanges? If not, why do we have two sentence structures to express the same idea? Thanks.

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    #4

    Exclamation Re: Relative clause and gerund

    Quote Originally Posted by Deepurple View Post
    Manas Ranjan Mallick, thank you for your detailed explanation.
    But I would like to know if the "witnessing" in the first sentence could be replaced by "who witnessed", and the "who witnessed the murder" in the second one by "witnessing" instead. If so, do they have any differences in such exchanges? If not, why do we have two sentence structures to express the same idea? Thanks.
    Yes, Yes you can do so, In the 1st sentence you replace the adjective with an adjective clause “who witnessed’ and in the 2nd , an adjective clause by an adjective, without any change of meaning. We have more than one sentence structure to express the same idea for clarity of expression. When we wish to condense a text (paragraph or essay), the clauses (adjective, adverb) are usually replaced by single words.

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    #5

    Re: Relative clause and gerund

    Quote Originally Posted by Manas Ranjan Mallick View Post
    Yes, Yes you can do so, In the 1st sentence you replace the adjective with an adjective clause “who witnessed’ and in the 2nd , an adjective clause by an adjective, without any change of meaning. We have more than one sentence structure to express the same idea for clarity of expression. When we wish to condense a text (paragraph or essay), the clauses (adjective, adverb) are usually replaced by single words.
    I don't think so.
    Ving can be:
    a child who is crying on the road/a child crying on the road
    a child who was crying on the road yesterday/ a child crying on the road yesterday

    a child who cried on the road
    a child who has cried on the road/a child cried on the road
    a child who is sent on the road/a child sent on the road
    Can I change each other?

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    #6

    Exclamation Re: Relative clause and gerund

    Quote Originally Posted by whitemoon View Post
    I don't think so.
    Ving can be:
    a child who is crying on the road/a child crying on the road
    a child who was crying on the road yesterday/ a child crying on the road yesterday

    a child who cried on the road
    a child who has cried on the road/a child crying/cried on the road
    a child who is sent on the road/a child sent on the road
    Can I change each other?
    Yes, you can change each other where the clauses are underlined. In the case of bold one , you have to use the present participle form.

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