For ex. a particular medicine can be manufactured by many processes. But due to commercial probelms, only certain methods are economically viable. Hence a particular developer would get a patent right for the same and no one else can manufacture that product without his permission. Similar rights to Patent are copyright(just to produce copies of the original like in CDs,DVDs, Cassettes or Records etc, or Books in physical or electronic form). Also 'trademark' is one of the three intellectual rights. Here a particular brand name is used to promote a product, though the manufactures may be different, but by agreeing to certain conidtions of a standard or uniform manufacturing process, you can use 'trademark' for marketing your product. Franchisees are paying huge amounts to get permission to use such trademarks. (your patent food example fits the description for this kind of usage).
Another use of Patent is about the usual or accepted form of a thing like a soldier's Patent leather shoes. A soldier's patent leather shoes mean the fashion in which they are designed are same and they do not get changed with passage of time.(The same meaning as you have mentioned "the patent bolt").
Also, we may use the term "he cracked his patent joke in the party again", i.e., he told the same jaoke again and again and to make fun of this habit you say "his patent joke".
But the first two usages have significance in everyday use.
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