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    by + gerund

    Dear teachers,

    Would you be kind to tell me your weighty opinion concerning the following sentences?

    Would you be kind to help me by interpreting the following expression?

    You may help me by translating this article.
    Winkler prepared tetraethylgermane by treating germanium tetrachloride with diethylzinc.
    The quantity of polymer eventually formed was estimated by distilling off the monomer dirextly from the sample and weighting the residue.
    If the sulfuric acid solution of the oxonium salt is diluted carefully by pouring it slowly on ice, the ether can be liberated in unchanged condition.

    Thank you for your efforts.


    Last edited by vil; 20-Jan-2009 at 12:55.

  1. English-coach's Avatar
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    Smile Re: by + gerund


    I am not exactly sure what you need help with. The grammar or the meaning of the sentences so I will explain both.

    First when you have by followed by the gerund, it is an experssion used to explain how something was done or accomplished.

    For example my monthly bills have decreased. How did they decrease? My monthly bills were decreased by shutting off lights, by using less water and by cancelling my cell phone.

    So for each of the sentences it is explaining how something was done.

    How can you helpme? By translating...
    How did Winkler prepare the tetraethylgermane? He did it by treating...
    How was the quality estimated? It was estimated by distilling...
    How was the solution diuted? It was diluted by pouring...

    Does that help?
    Have a great day.

    Last edited by English-coach; 25-Jan-2009 at 11:44.

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