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  1. aaron_hee

    Question Use of connector "And"

    Hi all,

    I wish to inquire on the use of the connector "and" in a sentence. Most of us know that and is a connector which join 2 sentences or clauses/phrases together.

    e.g. He is a rich man and a very powerful one too.

    At times, it can also be use to join 2 nouns/pronouns as in

    "John and I are going to the movies."

    However, I wonder under what condition can "and" be used in the start of a sentence with any comma at the end of the clause and continue with a subordinate clause? In this example, clearly the word "and" is followed by a complete sentence, why is this possible if there is nothing to connect to? If it connects to the previous sentence, why is it a sentence by itself?

    I am anyone help can draw reference to British English. Thank you


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    Re: Use of connector "And"

    Although some teachers and manuals of style insist that you must not begin a sentence with "and" or "but", in truth the very best writers have never hesitated to do so whenever they felt like it. And indeed, the simplest way to distinguish coordinating and subordinating conjunctions is to note that a coordinating conjunction can begin a sentence with only one clause, while a subordinating conjunction cannot.

    The thought is continued from what has already been said.

    "And I saw the dead, great and small, stand before God. And the books were opened; and another book was opened, which is the book of life. And the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the books, according to their works." -- Revelation, Authorized Version

    "The girls grieved over such a number of ladies, but were comforted the day before the ball by hearing, that instead of twelve he brought only six with him from London--his five sisters and a cousin. And when the party entered the assembly room it consisted of only five altogether--Mr. Bingley, his two sisters, the husband of the eldest, and another young man." -- Jane Austen

    "Torture is ubiquitous. And, as Sartre wrote in his preface to Henri Alleg's chilling book about Algeria, 'Anyone, at any time, may equally find himself victim or executioner.'" -- Gore Vidal

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    Question Re: Use of connector "And"

    Thank you very much for your quick reply.

    I will give a specific example from my English Text:

    When I finally remembered, I realised I had spent all my allowance. And Mum had a strict rule that gifts had to come out of my own allowance.

    In the first sentece, the connector "when" is clearly not one of the coordinating conjuction, yet when it is used at the beginning of the sentence, it is contained within a clause - with a subject "I" and verb "remembered" which does not end with a full stop but has to continue with another clause "I realised I had spent all my allowance".

    Is that what you meant by a subordinating conjunction cannot stand alone in a clause?

    On the other hand, in the second sentence, the clause "Mum had a strict rule that gifts had to come out of my own allowance" looks more like a sentence to me with a subject (mum), verb(had) and object (noun phrase - had a strict rule) + an adverbial (gifts had to come out of my own allowance) . In that case, I wonder what is the connector - or what is called the coordinating conjunction there for?

    I will appreciate if you can correct me if I have mis-identified any parts of speech in the example I have given above.

    I shall quote another example using another coordinating conjuction "but"

    1. I was listening intently to Mr Mark. But Olive was nearly dozing off beside me.

    2. I was listening intently to Mr Mark but Olive was nearly dozing off beside me.

    3. While I was listening intently to Mr Mark, Olive was neary dozing off beside me.

    In the first case, I have punctuated and start with "but", my question is there a grammatical mistake in either of these sentences? If there is none, will there any other difference in meaning when use that manner?

    In the 3rd case, I have use another conjuction - a subordinating one, I supposed, in connecting the 2 clauses. Is there any further difference between all the 3 of them?

    Thanks a lot


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