Your questions were very clear -- here are some answers:
1. The figures on the cards are referred to by their whole names, the Ace, the King, the Queen and the Jack.
2. The pattern on the cards is called the "suit." Example: "What suits are you holding in your hand of cards?" This means "what are the patterns of the cards you are holding?"
3. The "card A in pattern heart" is called "the Ace of Hearts." The rest of the figure cards are called by the name of the figure and the name of the pattern, as in "the King of Spades" or "the Queen of Diamonds."
4. The small set of cards you receive to play the game with is called your "hand." You could ask someone, "Did you get a good hand, or a bad hand?"
5. Playing cards are referred to as "cards" or "playing cards." "Poker cards" is not a usual way to refer to cards.
6. The American called the cards "a deck of cards," which means a set or a collection of playing cards.
I hope this has been helpful.
Student or Learner