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    • Join Date: Mar 2009
    • Posts: 363
    #1

    With or without "the"

    Are the following of-phrase sentences acceptable?

    1. Closing of the factory causes hardship to everyone involved.
    2. The closing of the factory causes hardship to everyone involved.
    3. Closure of the factory causes hardship to everyone involved.
    4. The closure of the factory causes hardship to everyone involved.


    • Join Date: Mar 2009
    • Posts: 248
    #2

    Re: With or without "the"

    Sentences 1) and 2) are OK. Sentence 1), without the definite determiner "the," is hypothetical/theoretical; it refers to any or every closing. Sentence 2), with definite determiner "the," refers to a real, specific closing that both the writer and the reader know about. The simple present "causes" in sentence 2) makes it sound as if the c losing of the factory is a habit, something that happens perhaps every summer.
    "Closure" is grammatical but somewhat awkward in this context. Don't use it.
    This is a good question.

    • Member Info
      • Native Language:
      • Japanese
      • Home Country:
      • Japan
      • Current Location:
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    • Join Date: Mar 2009
    • Posts: 363
    #3

    Re: With or without "the"

    Thank you for your reply.

    If they are in the past tense, which ones are acceptable and what differences do they have?

    1. Closing of the factory caused hardship to everyone involved.
    2. The closing of the factory caused hardship to everyone involved.
    3. Closure of the factory caused hardship to everyone involved.
    4. The closure of the factory caused hardship to everyone involved.

    What about the following sentences?
    5. What do you think of the liberalization of rice imports in Japan?
    6. What do you think of liberalization of rice imports in Japan?
    7. What do you think of the liberalizing of rice imports in Japan?
    8. What do you think of liberalizing of rice imports in Japan?

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