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    • Join Date: May 2005
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    #1

    A grammatical question

    Railroads were the unchallenged leader in transportation for a hundred years. But beginning in the early 1900s, railroads faced competition from newer forms of transportation. Today millions of people own automobiles. Buses offer inexpensive services between cities. Airplanes provide quick transportation over long distances. The result has been a sharp drop in the use of trains. Almost all railroads face serious problems that threaten to drive them out of business. But they provide low-cost, fuel-saving transportation. One gallon of diesel fuel will haul about
    four times as much by rail as by truck. In this view, railroads are the
    form of transportation that has much to offer when the world is concerned
    about saving fuel.
    ****************************

    With reference to the above passage I would appreciate it, if you would let me know how the underlined part can be re-written in a complete clause. And I would like to know if the "beginning" in the underlined part is a gerund or a past participle.

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    #2

    Re: A grammatical question

    'Beginning' here is a present participle!


    • Join Date: Jul 2006
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    #3

    Re: A grammatical question

    'beginning' in the sentence is a present participle, present in form but past in meaning.


    • Join Date: May 2005
    • Posts: 69
    #4

    Re: A grammatical question

    Quote Originally Posted by philo2009 View Post
    'Beginning' here is a present participle!
    ****************

    Thank you for your kind answer. Would you kindly re-write the underlined part in a complete clause for me? That is, "Conjunction + Subject + began in the early 1900s, railroads faced competition ......"
    Last edited by sariputra; 18-Apr-2009 at 15:21.

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