# Thread: substituted by/substituted fo/substitution of...for...

1. ## substituted by/substituted fo/substitution of...for...

Dear teachers,

Would you be kind enough to tell me your opinion concerning the following sentences?

1.Hydrogen was substituted by oxygen.
2.Hydrogen was substituted for oxygen.
3.Considerable disagreement exists regarding the extent of substitution of chlorine for hydrogen in given alkalies.

Regards,

V.

2. ## Re: substituted by/substituted fo/substitution of...for...

1.Hydrogen was substituted by oxygen. -- oxigen was used
2.Hydrogen was substituted for oxygen. -- hydrogen was used
3.Considerable disagreement exists regarding the extent of substitution of chlorine for hydrogen in given alkalies. -- disagreement over the use of chlorine rather than hydrogen

These are the patterns that that emerge in the usage of substitute:

- substitute A for B -- this means A takes the place of B -- use A
- substitute B for A -- B takes the place of A -- use B
- B was substituted for A -- B takes the place of A -- use B
- A was substituted for B -- A takes the place of B -- use A

- substitute A with/by B -- B takes the place of A -- use B
- substitute B with/by A -- A takes the place of B -- use A
- A was substituted with/by B -- B takes the place of A -- use B
- B was substituted with/by A -- A takes the place of B -- use A

- substitute for sy/sg -- sy/sg is replaced by X = X replaces sy/sg = replace sy/sg with X

- substitute -- context tells:
I was substituted in the second half ... after I had broken my arm. -- I left, sy else took my place
I was substituted in the second half ... and 5 minutes later, during the closing minutes, I scored an equalizer. -- I came in to play

To sum up:
- when there is the preposition for with substitute, what comes after for is removed
- with by and with, it is the other way around

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