adj + (in) + -ing

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vagrantYip

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Good morning, everyone.

I wonder whether the form of "adj + -ing" is a short form of "adj + (in) + -ing".


'in' can be omitted in the following examples:
a. I am happy (in) working here.
b. I am exhausted (in) cleaning up after you.
c. I am busy (in) studying at the moment.

'in' cannot be omitted in the following examples:
d. This pill is effective in stopping cough.
e. I am interested in joining your club.
f. Adam is efficient in packing up the goods.

Is "in" idiomatically left out in "adj + -ing" form? thanks very much
 

2006

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Good morning, everyone.

I wonder whether the form of "adj + -ing" is a short form of "adj + (in) + -ing".


'in' can be omitted in the following examples:
a. I am happy [STRIKE](in)[/STRIKE] working here. :cross: with "in"
b. I am exhausted from cleaning up after you. :tick: ....:cross: with "in"
c. I am busy [STRIKE](in)[/STRIKE] studying at the moment. :cross: with "in"

'in' cannot be omitted in the following examples:
d. This pill is effective (in)(for) stopping cough. :tick:
e. I am interested in joining your club. :tick:
f. Adam is efficient in packing up the goods. :tick:
2006
 

Raymott

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Jun 29, 2008
Member Type
Academic
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English
Home Country
Australia
Current Location
Australia
Good morning, everyone.

I wonder whether the form of "adj + -ing" is a short form of "adj + (in) + -ing".

'in' can be omitted in the following examples:
a. I am happy (in) working here.
b. I am exhausted (in) cleaning up after you.
c. I am busy (in) studying at the moment.

'in' cannot be omitted in the following examples:
d. This pill is effective in stopping cough.
e. I am interested in joining your club.
f. Adam is efficient in packing up the goods.

Is "in" idiomatically left out in "adj + -ing" form? thanks very much
No, 'in' isn't left out idiomatically. These sentences are of a slightly different form.
In the sentences without 'in', you can reverse the order and use "makes". The complement, in some way, causes the condition that the adjective describes:
a. I am happy working here. "Working here makes me (causes me to be) happy."
b. I am exhausted cleaning up after you. "Cleaning up after you makes me exhausted."
c. I am busy studying at the moment. "Studying at the moment makes me busy."

You can't do this with d - f.
d. This pill is effective in stopping cough. * Stopping the cough makes the pill effective. NO.
 
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