By1920, had/ had had

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joham

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By 1920, women in the US, Canada and most European countries had the right to vote.

I'd like to know if we can use 'had had' in this sentence. I often see 'By...' go with a perfect tense. So I have this question here.

Thank you in advance.
 

susiedqq

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By 1920, women in the US, Canada and most European countries had the right to vote.


Yes, you could use "had had" - but most people don't.

If you must use "had" two times, say: . . . "countries had already had the right to vote."
 

joham

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By 1920, women in the US, Canada and most European countries had the right to vote.


Yes, you could use "had had" - but most people don't.

If you must use "had" two times, say: . . . "countries had already had the right to vote."

Then, just to be sure, the sentence in OXFORD 6th edition, A:
By the end of the week we knew the subject from A to Z.

can be said as 'By the end of the week we had known the subject from A to Z'?
Thank you very much.
 

jamiep

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I'd advise against using the past perfect here. If you use had had it could suggest that women had the right before but not anymore.
 
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