ED..OR..ING??

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ESL-lover

Junior Member
Joined
May 22, 2003
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English Teacher
Hello my teachers.....

Today I want to talk about Adjectives ending with ED or ING

How can we use it in English?

for example:

Confused and Confusing both are an adjective ............................

Can I say:

I am confused.
or
I am confusing.

and WHY??

Thank you.........................
 

Casiopea

VIP Member
Joined
Sep 21, 2003
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Other
participles

That's a very BIG topic. For the time being, though, here's something to think about. Exceptions there will be! :)

He is confused (by what he reads). What he reads confuses him.
He is confusing me. He makes me confused.
It is confusing (to me). It makes me confused.

Use the past participle (-ed) to describe the subject.
Use the present participle (-ing) to express causation (e.g. make).

I am frightened (by others). Others frighten me.
I am frightening (to others). I make others frightened.

I am interested (in sports). Sports interest me.
I am interesting (to others). I make others interested in me.
 

RonBee

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Feb 9, 2003
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Native Language
American English
Home Country
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Current Location
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ESL-lover said:
Hello my teachers.....

Today I want to talk about Adjectives ending with ED or ING

How can we use it in English?

for example:

Confused and Confusing both are an adjective ............................

Can I say:

I am confused.
or
I am confusing.

and WHY??

As Casiopea pointed out (and very well) your two example sentences express two oppposite things. In your first sentence ("I am confused") you are the one experiencing the confusion. In your second sentence you are causing the confusion. In the first sentence confused acts as a predicate adjective. In the second sentence confusing is part of the verb.

:)
 
J

jwschang

Guest
RonBee said:
ESL-lover said:
Hello my teachers.....

Today I want to talk about Adjectives ending with ED or ING

How can we use it in English?

for example:

Confused and Confusing both are an adjective ............................

Can I say:

I am confused.
or
I am confusing.

and WHY??

As Casiopea pointed out (and very well) your two example sentences express two oppposite things. In your first sentence ("I am confused") you are the one experiencing the confusion. In your second sentence you are causing the confusion. In the first sentence confused acts as a predicate adjective. In the second sentence confusing is part of the verb.

:)

Another way to see the difference:
1. Sentence 1 is in the passive voice, meaning the grammatical subject "I" is affected by the action.
2. Sentence 2 is in the active voice, meaning the subject is doing or causing the action.
 
J

jwschang

Guest
ESL-lover said:
Hello my teachers.....

Today I want to talk about Adjectives ending with ED or ING

How can we use it in English?

for example:

Confused and Confusing both are an adjective ............................

Can I say:

I am confused.
or
I am confusing.

and WHY??

Thank you.........................

Please see my thread to Ron Bee.

1. The passive voice (sentence 1) ALWAYS uses the Perfect Participle (or past participle) of the main verb ("confuse" in this case, which is "confused") plus one or more supporting (or auxiliary verbs) depending on the tense. The supporting verbs must include a FORM of the verb BE.

2. Taking the verb CONFUSE, the various tenses in the passive voice are:
(a) I am confused (simple present)
(b) I was confused (simple past)
(c) I shall/will be confused (future)
(d) I am being confused (present continuous/progressive)
(e) I was being confused (past continuous)
(f) I have been confused (present perfect)
(g) I had been confused (past perfect)
(h) I would have been confused (future perfect)
8)
 
J

jwschang

Guest
ESL-lover said:
Hello my teachers.....

Today I want to talk about Adjectives ending with ED or ING

How can we use it in English?

for example:

Confused and Confusing both are an adjective ............................

Can I say:

I am confused.
or
I am confusing.

and WHY??

Thank you.........................

To answer your question on Adjectives:

1. When the Perfect Partciple is used in the passive voice, it can be regarded as an adjective. This is largely because the passive voice uses the verb Be as an auxiliary.
2. The verb Be expresses existence or presence in the CONTEXT denoted by a noun, pronoun, ADJECTIVE, or adverb. E.g.,
(a) I am a writer (noun)
(b) I am He/Him who.... (pronoun)
(c) I am happy (adjective)
(d) I am confused (adjective)
(e) I am early (adverb)
 
J

jwschang

Guest
ESL-lover said:
Hello my teachers.....

Today I want to talk about Adjectives ending with ED or ING

How can we use it in English?

for example:

Confused and Confusing both are an adjective ............................

Can I say:

I am confused.
or
I am confusing.

and WHY??

Thank you.........................

More on verbs used as Adjectives.

1. The Continuous Participle (CP) (like the Perfect Participle) can also be used as an adjective. This is the case when it is clear that it is not being used to express a Continuous Tense; e.g. "The apple is tempting", meaning the apple looks inviting. The sentence is in the simple present tense and not the present continuous tense because an apple cannot DO any "tempting", but it can BE tempting.
2. So, when used with the verb Be, the CP must be understood as in the above example.
3. When used with a verb other than Be, the CP MUST be acting as an adjective and not expressing the Continuous Tense. This is because a Continuous Tense MUST have the verb Be as the auxiliary. E.g., "The apple LOOKS tempting".
4. Other examples of (3):
(a) It kept falling.
(b) It stopped raining.
(c) It seems confusing.
5. The equivalent rule applies to the Perfect Participle (PP). To be expressing a verb tense, the PP must be used with the auxiliary Have (in the active voice), or the verb Be (in the passive voice) or the verb Have + "Been" (in the passive voice).
6. When the PP is not expressing a verb tense, then it is being used as an Adjective. E.g.
(a) He is tired (not passive voice, therefore adjective).
(b) He was pushed (passive voice, therefore verb, not adjective)
(c) He is confused by the advertisement (passive, therefore verb)
(d) He feels confused (cannot be passive because no "Be", therefore adjective).
 
J

jwschang

Guest
ESL-lover said:
Hello my teachers.....

Today I want to talk about Adjectives ending with ED or ING

How can we use it in English?

for example:

Confused and Confusing both are an adjective ............................

Can I say:

I am confused.
or
I am confusing.

To further explain my previous note:

1. The apple is tempting me (treating the apple as capable of doing the action). Verb in the present continuous tense.
2. The apple is tempting TO me. Adjective, "is" being in the simple present tense.

and WHY??

Thank you.........................
 
J

jwschang

Guest
To further explain my previous note:
1."The apple is tempting me" (treating the apple as being capable of doing the action). Verb in the present continuous tense.
2. "The apple is tempting TO me." Adjective, "is" being in the simple present tense.[/quote]
 

Tdol

Editor, UsingEnglish.com
Staff member
Joined
Nov 13, 2002
Member Type
Native Language
British English
Home Country
UK
Current Location
Japan
To test JWSChang's view, which is correct, change the verb to another copula verb like 'looks' and you'll see that it works in the second but not the first, confirming that it is indeed an adjective. ;-)
 
J

jwschang

Guest
ESL-lover said:
Hello my teachers.....

Today I want to talk about Adjectives ending with ED or ING

How can we use it in English?

for example:

Confused and Confusing both are an adjective ............................

Can I say:

I am confused.
or
I am confusing.




and WHY??

Thank you.........................

To summarize the points on verbal adjectives:
1. Verbs can be used as adjectives only in TWO forms: Continuous Participle Form (ing) and Perfect Participle Form (ed or not).
2. Used before a noun, e.g.
(a) The falling leaves
(b) The fallen leaves
(c) The broken branch
(d) The cooked fish
(e) Spoken words
3. Used with a verb that is NOT Be or Have, e.g.
(a) Looks tempting
(b) Started boiling
(c) Seems completed
(d) Likes them frozen
4. Used with verb Be or Have when they are NOT expressing a tense.
 
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