How do I explain differences between sentences and words

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fritch20

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1) An advanced student asks you to explain the difference between the following pairs of sentences. What would your explanation be?

a) They always play on our front lawn
· Use of a Pronoun
They’re always playing on our front lawn.
· Present Plural Phrase

b) She didn’t need to buy a ticket after all.
· She had a ticket already
She needn’t have bought a ticket after all
· Combines didn’t and need

c) The senior members of staff who were over 60 took early retirement.
· Combines two clauses
The senior members of staff, who were over 60, took early retirement
· Combines 3 clauses

2) You want to teach an Elementary level class how to ask for and give simple directions, so that students can find their way around Bath

a) Which words and phrases would you teach in your 1st lesson?
· North, South, West, East, Block, Street
· The college is north of Main St.
· City Hall is two blocks south of the college.

b) How would you go about it?
· Bring in a map to demonstrate
c) What difficulties would you anticipate?
· Students unfamiliar with directions, and word phrases
3) What pronunciation difficulties can you identify in the following sets of words or sentences? How would you draw students’ attention to the correct pronunciations?

a) worked, climbed, recorded
· Word + ed; implies past tense

b) nation, national, nationality
· Different meanings; Go over definitions

c) You don’t believe that, do you? (Sounding surprised)
· Question in a statement

You really believe that, don’t you? (expecting confirmation)
· Question asking for a response

4) What difficulties (if any) might the underlined vocabulary items present for learners? How would you help learners to understand the meaning of each item?

a) They’ve bought a bungalow near the seaside.
· Unable to understand the word; Show that bungalow is the same as house, shack, cottage.

b) He’s always been a bit skinny
· Unable to understand the word; Skinny is the same as thin, and opposite of fat

c) She’s usually sympathetic to people
· Unable to understand the word; Sympathetic implies to listen, understand what others are feeling.

d) I’ve never been able to get on with people I work with.
· To get on with; friendly, converse with, hang out.
 

Tdol

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I would have thought that the difference was the use of the present simple to denote the habit and the present progressive to show disapprovalof the habit in the first example:
a) They always play on our front lawn

b) They’re always playing on our front lawn.

:)
 

MikeNewYork

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fritch20 said:
1) An advanced student asks you to explain the difference between the following pairs of sentences. What would your explanation be?

a) They always play on our front lawn
· Use of a Pronoun
They’re always playing on our front lawn.
· Present Plural Phrase

The first is present tense used for habitual action (The adverb always adds clarity). The second is the present progressive form/tense used for habitual action. (The adverb always is necessary for the habit meaning.)

b) She didn’t need to buy a ticket after all.
· She had a ticket already
She needn’t have bought a ticket after all
· Combines didn’t and need

Yes, these two demonstrate the uses of "didn't need" (did not need)and "needn't" (need not).

c) The senior members of staff who were over 60 took early retirement.
· Combines two clauses
The senior members of staff, who were over 60, took early retirement
· Combines 3 clauses

There are still only two clauses in the second.

In the first, the relative clause "who were over sixty" is a restrictive/defining relative clause. It is necessary for the sentence's meaning and is not offset with commas. This means that "only" senior members of the staff over 60 took early retirement. There were other senior members of the staff who were under 60.

In the second, the relative clause "who were over sixty" is a non-restrictive/non-defining relative clause. It is not necessary for the sentence's meaning and is offset with commas. This means that "all" of the senior members of the staff were over 60 and they "all" took early retirement. There were no senior members of the staff who were under 60.

2) You want to teach an Elementary level class how to ask for and give simple directions, so that students can find their way around Bath

a) Which words and phrases would you teach in your 1st lesson?
· North, South, West, East, Block, Street
· The college is north of Main St.
· City Hall is two blocks south of the college.

b) How would you go about it?
· Bring in a map to demonstrate
c) What difficulties would you anticipate?
· Students unfamiliar with directions, and word phrases

Certainly, some vocabulary would need to be taught. A map could be a great aid. In addition to words for directions, some verbs would have to be introduced: go, walk, turn, continue, etc.

3) What pronunciation difficulties can you identify in the following sets of words or sentences? How would you draw students’ attention to the correct pronunciations?

a) worked, climbed, recorded
· Word + ed; implies past tense

b) nation, national, nationality
· Different meanings; Go over definitions

c) You don’t believe that, do you? (Sounding surprised)
· Question in a statement

You really believe that, don’t you? (expecting confirmation)
· Question asking for a response

a) three different pronunciations of verbs ending in -ed.

work + t sound
climb + d sound
record + ed sound (additional syllable)

b) change of vowel sound from long to short

c) rising voice inflection vs. falling voice inflection in tag questions.



4) What difficulties (if any) might the underlined vocabulary items present for learners? How would you help learners to understand the meaning of each item?

a) They’ve bought a bungalow near the seaside.
· Unable to understand the word; Show that bungalow is the same as house, shack, cottage.

b) He’s always been a bit skinny
· Unable to understand the word; Skinny is the same as thin, and opposite of fat

c) She’s usually sympathetic to people
· Unable to understand the word; Sympathetic implies to listen, understand what others are feeling.

d) I’ve never been able to get on with people I work with.
· To get on with; friendly, converse with, hang out.

Time to introduce the dictionary. :wink:
 

Tdol

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Yo! Mike, cool work. ;-)
 

MikeNewYork

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Re: Thanks for the help

fritch20 said:
Thanks Mike

You're welcome. Was that what you wanted? :wink:
 
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fritch20

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Re: Thanks for the help

Yeah it was just the help I needed Thanks again
 

Red5

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Was this a homework assignment by any chance?
 

MikeNewYork

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Re: Thanks for the help

fritch20 said:
Yeah it was just the help I needed Thanks again

No problem :wink:
 
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fritch20

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This was for a pre-interview task in a CELTA programme. Some of the concepts of how to explain this type of material was foreign to me.
 
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