how well...applied

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jasonlulu_2000

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A new study has found no evidence that sunscreen, commonly used to reduce the risk of skin cancer, actually increase the risk.
Researchers from the University of Iowa based their findings on a review of 18 earlier studies that looked at the association between sunscreen use and melanoma . They said that they found flaws in studies that had reported associations between sunscreen use and higher risk of melanoma
Most health experts believe that by protecting the skin from the harmful effects of the sun, sunscreen helps prevent skin cancer, which is increasing in incidence faster than any other cancer in the United States.
But questions has been raised about sunscreen and whether it may has opposite effect, perhaps by allowing people to remain exposed to the sun longer without burning.
The researchers said that among the problems with some earlier studies is that they often failed to take into account that those people most at risk for skin cancer--- people with fair skin and freckles, for example--- are more likely to use sunscreen. As a result, it may appear that sunscreen users get cancer more often.
The studies, which generally relied on volunteers to recall their sunscreen use, were also unable to prove how well the products had been applied,said the new study.


What does the underlined part mean? Do "the products" refer to sunscreen?


Thanks for your help!


Jason
 

emsr2d2

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jasonlulu_2000

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Thanks.
But what does the underlined part mean?
 

emsr2d2

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Sorry, I missed half your question. It means that it was not possible to tell how well/carefully/effectively the sunscreen had been applied to the bodies of the volunteers (whether the volunteers put sunscreen on their own bodies or on each other's is impossible to tell but is irrelevant).

When talking about sunscreen, the verb "to apply" is frequently used, meaning "to put on your skin". The directions on a bottle of sunscreen will read something like "Apply liberally once an hour and always re-apply after swimming".
 
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