Informative Abstract

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bmbsa

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Hi everyone :)

I am a new English learner and I need you to help me writing an Informative Abstract for the following article:

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"Investing in Every Child, An Economic Study of the Costs and Benefits of Eliminating Child Labour"
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A new study by the International Labour Office (ILO) says the benefits of eliminating child labour will be nearly seven times greater than the costs, or an estimated US$ 5.1 trillion in the developing and transitional economies, where most child labourers are found.

What is more, the study, conducted by the ILO International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC), says child labour - which involves one in every six children in the world - can be eliminated and replaced by universal education by the year 2020 at an estimated total cost of US$ 760 billion.

"What's good social policy is also good economic policy. Eliminating child labour will yield an enormous return on investment - and a priceless impact on the lives of children and families", says ILO Director-General Juan Somavia.

The study, entitled "Investing in Every Child, An Economic Study of the Costs and Benefits of Eliminating Child Labour", is the first integrated analysis of the economic costs and benefits of eliminating child labour to be conducted worldwide. It compares costs and benefits - not with a view to justifying action to eliminate child labour, which is already called for by the ILO in its Conventions Nos. 138 and 182 - but with the aim of understanding the economic implications of these international commitments.

The ILO estimates that some 246 million children are currently involved in child labour worldwide. Of these, 179 million - or one in every eight children worldwide - are exposed to the worst forms of child labour, which endanger their physical, mental or moral well-being.

The ILO/IPEC study applies a model to developing and transitional economies worldwide and says that globally, the economic benefits of the fight against child labour exceed costs by a ratio of 6.7 to 1. All regions of the world would experience large net gains from the elimination of child labour, although some would benefit more than others. In North Africa and the Middle East, for examples, the benefits would be the highest relative to the costs (8.4 to 1), whereas in sub-Saharan Africa they would be the lowest (5.2 to 1). In Asia, the ratio would be 7.2 to 1, in transitional countries 5.9 to 1, while in Latin America it would be 5.3 to 1. The global net economic benefits of the hypothetical programme would amount to 22.2 per cent of aggregate annual gross national income.


Calculating the costs and benefits:

According to the study, eliminating child labour would be a "generational investment" and a sustained commitment to children, both today and tomorrow. In the first years, the costs would almost certainly exceed returns. However, net economic flows would turn dramatically positive as the effects of improved education and health take hold. By 2020, costs would be far outweighed by the returns, leaving annual benefits of around US$ 60 billion.

In comparison to other social costs, the average annual cost of eliminating child labour would be far less than the cost of financing debt service or the military, the study says. For example, the average annual cost of US$ 95 billion would amount to about 20 per cent of current military spending in developing and transitional countries, or 9.5 per cent of developing countries' US$ 1 trillion debt service.

The study argues that the costs are a "wise investment" as each extra year of schooling stemming from universal education to the age of 14 results in an additional 11 per cent of future earnings per year, yielding global benefits of just over US$ 5 trillion. On the cost side, the supply of education accounts for nearly two-thirds of the total costs.

Reaping the economic value of expanded education depends on countries' ability to create new jobs, take advantage of higher levels of human capital and develop economic policies to stimulate growth, the study admits. Yet even if the effect of education on future earnings was halved to 5 per cent, the study estimates that global benefits would still exceed US$ 2 trillion.

Households affected by the study's programme face another major cost. The progressive elimination of child labour over the next 20 years deprives families of the economic value of their children's labour. The study estimates that a child's contribution to family income is 20 per cent of an adult's - and that with child labour eliminated, the global opportunity cost borne by households would total US$ 246.8 billion.

To take account of this, the study factors in the costs of a global programme of income support to poor households that commit to sending their children to school. Modelled on the existing successful Bolsa Escola programme in Brazil, the study costs out a similar form of child benefit phased in over twenty years which would transfer 60 to 80 per cent of the average value of a child's labour to poor households.

The study also argues that improvements in children's health, through the elimination of child labour, will bring tangible economic benefits. Globally, this benefit is estimated at US$ 28 billion. In comparison to other benefits, this amount is small. But the health of children is vital in many ways beyond economic benefits, the study says.

The report draws on a large range of data, including detailed country data from Brazil, Senegal, Kenya, Tanzania, Ukraine, Pakistan, Nepal and the Philippines. A second tier of data consisted of 24 additional countries for whom household surveys, primarily conducted by ILO-IPEC and the World Bank, have been implemented during the past decade. For the remaining countries, the study used publicly available demographic, economic and education data as the basis for extrapolating from those with more complete information.

National and regional programmes on child labour have flourished under IPEC, which began with six participating countries in 1992 with a single donor government (Germany), and has expanded to include operations in 80 countries funded by 30 donors.

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RonBee

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Exactly what are you supposed to do? How can I help?

:)
 

Tdol

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Firstly, what are the central points of the piece- these must be condensed into a short text. ;-)
 
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bmbsa

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RonBee said:
Exactly what are you supposed to do? How can I help?

:)

I need to write an abstract for that(or this?) article :)

tdol said:
Firstly, what are the central points of the piece- these must be condensed into a short text. ;-)

Background, Purpose, Methodolody, Results and Conclusion

Thanks
 

RonBee

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State concisely what you think it says. What are the main points the writer makes? State your opinion. State your opinion in a way that shows you understand what the article is about.

Post something and we can help you with the details.

Before you can explain something you have to understand it yourself. Explaining things is not just repeating what somebody else tells you.

:)
 
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bmbsa

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Hello RonBee,

This is not a homework or a test :)

I just want to get an idea how will the good abstract be written. I prefer to get it by this example.
 

RonBee

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You want to know how to write a good abstract?

:)
 
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bmbsa

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Yes I want to know how to write a good abstract for the above article ;)
 

RonBee

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First, write what you think is the main theme of the article.

:)
 
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bmbsa

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I don't want you to write the whole thing for me

just point me to the main points to be condensed into a short text.
Background?
Purpose?
Methodolody?
Results?
Conclusion?
 

Tdol

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A quick note before I add some comments. Being a language teacher, I cannot comment on the methodology, but I have asked someone who knows to look at it from that perspective and she'll read it tomorrow. ;-)
 

Tdol

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  • Background? The study???
    Purpose? To show that the elimination of childpoverty is economically desirable
    Methodolody? See my prvious post
    Results? That the methods used to calculate the figures used to maintain the status quo are incomplete.
    Conclusion? That the benefits of eliminating cjildpoverty outweigh the costs

HTH ;-)
 
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main points for an abstract

What is an abstract?

An abstract is a condensed version of a longer piece of writing that highlights the major points covered, concisely describes the content and scope of the writing, and reviews the writing's contents in abbreviated form.

How to write an informative abstract?

communicate specific information from the report, article, or paper.

include the purpose, methods, and scope of the report, article, or paper.

provide the report, article, or paper's results, conclusions, and recommendations.

length: from a paragraph to a page or two, depending upon the length of the original work being abstracted. Usually informative abstracts are 10% or less of the length of the original piece.

allow readers to decide whether they want to read the report, article, or paper.



·After you've finished rereading the article, paper, or report, write a rough draft without looking back at what you're abstracting.

Don't merely copy key sentences from the article, paper, or report: you'll put in too much or too little information.

Don't rely on the way material was phrased in the article, paper, or report: summarize information in a new way.

1. Make the abstract easy to read.

a. Use familiar words. If unfamiliar words are necessary, define them.

b. Avoid jargon.

c. Use active verbs rather than passive verbs.

d. Use short sentences, but vary sentence structure so that the abstract doesn't sound choppy.

e. Use complete sentences. Don't omit articles or other little words in an effort to save space.

f. Unless the abstract is very short (100-125 words), divide it into several paragraphs.

2. Be concise.

a. Rephrase ideas from the original document in your own words to condense the meaning into fewer words than the original used.

b. Use standard abbreviations.

c. Give information only once.

3. Be exact and unambiguous. If the article itself is unclear, use exact quotes from the article in quotation marks.

4. Use the same tone and emphasis that the original used. however, it is not necessary to follow the author's organization, wording, or even proportions. The more poorly the original article is written, the more changes you will need to make in the abstract.

5. Organize the information in the way that will be most useful to the reader. Most readers find that a thesis-first abstract is most useful, that is, start with the thesis, conclusion, or findings, then go on to the supporting data or details.

6. Do not comment on or evaluate the article. An abstract should not be confused with a review.

adapted from Day, Robert A. How to Write & Publish a Scientific Paper. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1995--see pages 29-32.
 

RonBee

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The theme of the article is the elimination of child labor. As even the author of that article admits, in the short term at least, the elimination of child labor would cause more poverty, not less. But that paper is no more than an academic exercise at any rate. What eliminates the necessity for child labor is wealth. It is not the other way around. The author of that paper would pay no price if his proposals worked hardships on others. That is not to say that child labor is a good thing for the child, but it is a good thing for that child's family if that labor means the difference between eating and not eating.

:)
 

Tdol

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The methods for calculating figures don't seem to be included. ;-)
 

RonBee

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tdol said:
The methods for calculating figures don't seem to be included. ;-)

That too.

:wink:
 
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bmbsa

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Here is my quick try, can you please correct me by adding,modifing or removing

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This study mainly compares the costs and the benefits of eliminating child labor. Nowadays, there are 246 million children counted as child laborers worldwide. Thus, they lose their rights for good education and health. The study shows that returns will exceed the costs but not before 2020. The returns are expected to be more than 2 trillion dollars. The costs of investing in educating those children will vary from one country to another. The education they will get, will improve their annual income as a result. The economic benefits will be around US$28 billion. However, the improvement in children health is more important. This study shows how important is the cooperation between the world countries in fighting child labor. One form of this cooperation is to fund the International Programme on the elimination of Child Labor (IPEC).
==================
 

RonBee

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bmbsa said:
Here is my quick try, can you please correct me by adding,modifing or removing

==================
This study mainly compares the costs and the benefits of eliminating child labor. Nowadays, there are 246 million children counted as child laborers worldwide. Thus, they lose their rights for good education and health. The study shows that returns will exceed the costs but not before 2020. The returns are expected to be more than 2 trillion dollars. The costs of investing in educating those children will vary from one country to another. The education they will get, will improve their annual income as a result. The economic benefits will be around US$28 billion. However, the improvement in children health is more important. This study shows how important is the cooperation between the world countries in fighting child labor. One form of this cooperation is to fund the International Programme on the elimination of Child Labor (IPEC).
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Re:
  • Thus, they lose their rights for good education and health.
Say:
  • Thus, they lose their opportunity to get a good education and they damage their health
What is the evidence for those assertions? Would the kids be in school if they weren't working?
 

Tdol

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This study shows how important is the cooperation between the world countries in fighting child labor

The word order needs changing and I would remove the article before co-operation:

This study shows how important cooperation between the world countries is in fighting child labor
 

RonBee

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Re:
  • The education they will get, will improve their annual income as a result.
Say:
  • The education they will get will increase their annual income.
Or:
  • The education they will get will result in an increase in their annual income.

Re:
  • The economic benefits will be around US$28 billion. However, the improvement in children health is more important.
Say:
  • The economic benefits will be around US$28 billion. However, the improvement in the children's health is more important.

Re:
  • This study shows how important is the cooperation between the world countries in fighting child labor.
Possibly:
  • This study shows how important cooperation is in the fight to end child labor.

I don't care for world country, as I don't think world is an adjective that defines country.


Re:
  • One form of this cooperation is to fund the International Programme on the elimination of Child Labor (IPEC).
Possibly:
  • One form of this cooperation is the International Programme on the elimination of Child Labor (IPEC).

:)
 
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