kinds of transcriptions

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Junior Member
Mar 2, 2008
Member Type
Student or Learner
Please help me distinguish 4 kinds of transcription ,phonemic transcription, phonetic transcription ,broad transcription & narrow transcription .

Could you please clarify them clearly with examples for me .
Thanks in advance.


Nov 24, 2007
Member Type
English Teacher
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American English
Home Country
United States
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Wikipedia says:
Narrow vs. broad transcription
Phonetic transcription may aim to transcribe the phonology of a language, or it may wish to go further and specify the precise phonetic realisation. In all systems of transcription we may therefore distinguish between broad transcription and narrow transcription. Broad transcription indicates only the more noticeable phonetic features of an utterance, whereas narrow transcription encodes more information about the phonetic variations of the specific allophones in the utterance. The difference between broad and narrow is a continuum. One particular form of a broad transcription is a phonemic transcription, which disregards all allophonic difference.

For more: Phonetic transcription - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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