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One needs to look at the words and decide what thay are doing in the sentence.
The first sentence is about what John said.
John: noun, subject of sentence
said: verb, main verb
The rest is what John said. As a whole, it is a noun clause. It is a noun because it functions as the direct object of the verb "said". It is a clause because it has a subject and a verb of its own.
he: pronoun, subject of clause
was: verb, clausal verb
too: adverb, modifies "busy"
busy: adjective, predicate adjective linked to "he" by "was"
to go out: infinitive phrase "to go" + adverb "out", which modifies "go"
(The infinitive phrase, IMO, modifies "busy", so it acts as an adverb.)
"I will do it if I have time."
I: pronoun, sentence subject
will do: sentence verb, future tense, auxiliary verb + base verb form
it: pronoun, direct object of the verb "will do"
The rest is a conditional clause, introduced by "if".
I: pronoun, clausal subject
have: clausal verb
time: noun, direct object of the verb "have".
The essence of the parts of speech grammar model involves the roles that words can play in a sentence. These roles determine how the words interact with each other.