[Grammar] Past participle with or without "being"?

Buddy42

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Dear teachers,

recently I came across the following problem concerning the use of participles.

The original sentence is:

The dog started to whine because it hadn't been fed in the morning.

a) Not having been fed in the morning, the dog started to whine.
b) Not being fed in the morning, the dog started to whine.
c) Not fed in the morning, the dog started to whine.

a) seems most familiar to me here because "in the morning" somehow indicates that both events did not happen at the same time.

But what about the others? And, by the way, do I have to put "not" at the beginning of the sentence? Is

d) Having not been...
e) Being not fed...

okay as well?

Thanks in advance

Buddy 42
 

GoesStation

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Only A works well, though D would be only a minor error.

You could say Not being fed in the morning makes the dog cranky.
 

Barb_D

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What is the error in d? I find that more natural.

Having not been fed...
Not having been fed...

I prefer the first.
 

Buddy42

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Thank you both for your answers. So my feeling about a) was correct - yeah!

But why exactly do b) and c) not work? Is it because of the difference in time indicated by 'in the morning'?
 

Matthew Wai

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'Not being fed' happened before 'started to whine', so the perfect participle 'Not having been fed' should be used.
 

Buddy42

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Excuse me for being that insistant :oops: ...but are b) and c) really wrong or just not idiomatic?
 

Matthew Wai

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I consider them wrong, but I could be wrong.
 

Rover_KE

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Excuse me for being that insistent ...but are b) and c) really wrong or just not idiomatic?
You are probably the first person ever to use those constructions. They are so unidiomatic that I'd call them wrong.
 
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