prefer, refer,focus

Status
Not open for further replies.

Mad-ox

Key Member
Joined
Aug 18, 2006
Member Type
English Teacher
Native Language
Hungarian
Home Country
Romania
Current Location
Romania
hi,

Do I always have to double the letter 'r' when these words ( prefer, refer ) are used in past tense or passive voice?

For instance, He preferred/prefered himself than his sister.
He referred/refered to me.
The writer referred/refered to the plot. etc



How about the word "focus": how is it corect?
His most focused/focussed attemt to.....


Madox
 

Wuisi

Member
Joined
Jan 31, 2008
Member Type
Student or Learner
Hi,
In two-syllable words we double the final consonant if the stress is on the last syllable, so we have -beginNing- but -visited-. You double it in prefer and refer but not in focus.
(There are some differences between BrE and AmE, travel, cancel...) (I'm not a teacher).
Hope you will find this useful.
 

Mad-ox

Key Member
Joined
Aug 18, 2006
Member Type
English Teacher
Native Language
Hungarian
Home Country
Romania
Current Location
Romania
Hi,
In two-syllable words we double the final consonant if the stress is on the last syllable, so we have -beginNing- but -visited-. You double it in prefer and refer but not in focus.
(There are some differences between BrE and AmE, travel, cancel...) (I'm not a teacher).
Hope you will find this useful.

Thank you for your reply. I already knew these rules but the problem is that I have met with both words: referred and refered and that's why I am still puzzled about it!
 

Anglika

No Longer With Us
Joined
Oct 19, 2006
Member Type
Other
I think it is a matter of misspelling. Refer is only referred in the past.
 
R

RedMtl

Guest
Thank you for your reply. I already knew these rules but the problem is that I have met with both words: referred and refered and that's why I am still puzzled about it!

Focussed and focused are both correct. Part may be a British/American difference. Also, "focussed" is often seen as an adjective.

The other two, as Anglika stated, were probably not spelled correctly wherever it was you saw them.
 

jdru_drv

Member
Joined
Feb 13, 2008
Member Type
English Teacher
Hi,
In two-syllable words we double the final consonant if the stress is on the last syllable, so we have -beginNing- but -visited-. You double it in prefer and refer but not in focus.
(There are some differences between BrE and AmE, travel, cancel...) (I'm not a teacher).
Hope you will find this useful.

What Wuisi is saying is correct, you have to know the pronunciation, for words with two syllables or more that end in what is called a consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) combination (like preFER) double the last consonant only if the las syllable is stressed. e.g. prefér -> preferred and vísit -> visited.

Also if you have one-syllable word with the CVC combination you double the last consonant. e.g. hop -> hopped and nag -> nagged.

However do not double the last consonant if the word ends in w x or y. e.g. bow -> bowed and play -> played.
 

Mad-ox

Key Member
Joined
Aug 18, 2006
Member Type
English Teacher
Native Language
Hungarian
Home Country
Romania
Current Location
Romania
hello,

So, It means that the following is correct, am I right?

Compossed of two books, originally published between........etc





Madox:)
 

Mad-ox

Key Member
Joined
Aug 18, 2006
Member Type
English Teacher
Native Language
Hungarian
Home Country
Romania
Current Location
Romania
However, I've just found in the Oxford dictionary : be composed of ( with one 's' )


e.g The muscle is composed of two different types of protein.
 

Wuisi

Member
Joined
Jan 31, 2008
Member Type
Student or Learner
Hi again,
You should pay attention to stress and spelling (the last three words must be Consonant-vowel-consonant)
Visit --> Visited (we don't double because of stress on the first syllable)
Prefer --> PreferRed (we double because it meets both stress and pattern)

COMPOSE (-OSE; it doesn't fit CVC pattern so it is COMPOSED )

However, there is no telling with spelling and I wouldn't be surprised if anyone told you you can double it in certain regions or for certain purposes or something like that.
Regards.
 
Status
Not open for further replies.
Top