rarely or never leaving their homes.

newkeenlearner

Senior Member
Joined
Apr 12, 2017
Member Type
Student or Learner
Native Language
Pashto, Pushto
Home Country
Afghanistan
Current Location
United States
Why does the author use "leaving" instead of "leaves" here?

The Hikikomori are inhabitants of Tokyo who cannot cope with the mechanical coldness and robotic uniformity of a megacity and have become recluses, rarely or never leaving their homes.

Source: Vocabulary In Use (Upper-Intermediate)
 

Matthew Wai

VIP Member
Joined
Nov 29, 2013
Member Type
Interested in Language
Native Language
Chinese
Home Country
China
Current Location
Hong Kong
The inhabitants have become recluses, rarely or never leaving their homes.

I consider 'leaving' a present participle modifying the subject 'The inhabitants'.
 

Tarheel

VIP Member
Joined
Jun 16, 2014
Member Type
Interested in Language
Native Language
American English
Home Country
United States
Current Location
United States
You would use "leave" if you said if this way:

...and they rarely or never leave their homes.
 

newkeenlearner

Senior Member
Joined
Apr 12, 2017
Member Type
Student or Learner
Native Language
Pashto, Pushto
Home Country
Afghanistan
Current Location
United States
Can we say? I think the author used the -ing form to say the reason.

The Hikikomori are inhabitants of Tokyo who cannot cope with the mechanical coldness and robotic uniformity of a megacity and have become recluses, because they rarely or never leave their homes.

 

Matthew Wai

VIP Member
Joined
Nov 29, 2013
Member Type
Interested in Language
Native Language
Chinese
Home Country
China
Current Location
Hong Kong
They have become recluses, and, as a result, they rarely or never leave their homes.
 

GoesStation

Moderator
Staff member
Joined
Dec 22, 2015
Member Type
Interested in Language
Native Language
American English
Home Country
United States
Current Location
United States
Can we say? I think the author used the -ing form to say the reason.

The Hikikomori are inhabitants of Tokyo who cannot cope with the mechanical coldness and robotic uniformity of a megacity and have become recluses, because they rarely or never leave their homes.
That is grammatically correct but it changes the meaning. The author expanded the idea of "recluses" by telling us these people stay home. Adding because says staying home is the reason or explanation.
 

newkeenlearner

Senior Member
Joined
Apr 12, 2017
Member Type
Student or Learner
Native Language
Pashto, Pushto
Home Country
Afghanistan
Current Location
United States
That is grammatically correct but it changes the meaning. The author expanded the idea of "recluses" by telling us these people stay home. Adding because says staying home is the reason or explanation.
Thanks. I understand. We have to use "so" or "as a result" to keep the main meaning.
The Hikikomori are inhabitants of Tokyo who cannot cope with the mechanical coldness and robotic uniformity of a megacity and have become recluses, so they rarely or never leave their homes.
 

Tarheel

VIP Member
Joined
Jun 16, 2014
Member Type
Interested in Language
Native Language
American English
Home Country
United States
Current Location
United States
Thanks. I understand. We have to use "so" or "as a result" to keep the main meaning.
The Hikikomori are inhabitants of Tokyo who cannot cope with the mechanical coldness and robotic uniformity of a megacity and have become recluses, so they rarely or never leave their homes.

There is no need to tamper with the original. The writer starts off by explaining why they do what they do (never leave home), then he expands on the word "recluses" with "rarely or never leaving their homes", driving the point home. It is fine as is.
 
Top