sentence analysis

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hela

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Dear teachers,

1) How do you analyse these sentences?

a) The children are with me. (SVAs ?)
b) Norma was in good health. (SVAs or SVCs ?)
c) He is without a job. (SVAs or SVCs ?)
d) I am in a bad mood. (SVCs ?)
e) I am in the classroom. (SVAs ?)
f) She managed to keep her children off cigarettes (SVOdAo ?)

2) How one can know if a phrase can be nominal, adjectival, adverbial or prepositional ?

- Do you say an adjective or adjectival phrase?
- Do you say an adverb or adverbial phrase?

ex: a) This book is so expensive. (is it an adverb or an adjective phrase)

b) The meeting is at 2.30. (is it an adjective or adverb phrase ?)

c) The dog smelled hungrily at the package. (adjective, adverb or nominal phrase ?)

d) I am in a bad mood. (is it a prepositional or an adjective phrase ?)

e) She managed to keep her children off cigarettes. (prepositional phrase ?)

f) We parted good friends. (adjective or noun phrase ?)

3) a) Can an Object-Complement be a prepositional phrase ?
If yes, would you please give me an example?

b) Can an Object-Adverbial be an adverb phrase ? Example ?

c) Can an Optional Adverbial be a prepositional phrase, or
a noun phrase ? Examples ?

Many thanks,
Hela
 

Casiopea

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a) The children are with me. (SVAs ?)
Where are the children? (Adverb)

b) Norma was in good health. (SVAs or SVCs ?)

What is Norma? (Adjective)
How is Norma? (Adverb)


c) He is without a job. (SVAs or SVCs ?)
What is he? (Adjective)
How is he (situated)? (Adverb)


d) I am in a bad mood. (SVCs ?)
What are you? (Adjective)
How are you? (Adverb)


e) I am in the classroom. (SVAs ?)
Where are you? (Adverb)

f) She managed to keep her children off cigarettes (SVOdAo ?)
off cigarettes (Object Complement modifying "her children")

hela said:
Do you say an adjective or adjectival phrase?
Do you say an adverb or adverbial phrase?

Both are acceptable. In academics: adjectival/adverbial phrase.

a) This book is so expensive. (is it an adverb or an adjective phrase)

Form: so (adverb) expensive (adjective)
Function: so expensive: What is it? (Adjective phrase)


b) The meeting is at 2.30. (is it an adjective or adverb phrase ?)

Form: prepositional phrase.
Function: When is the meeting? (Adverb phrase)


c) The dog smelled hungrily at the package. (adjective, adverb or nominal phrase ?)

Form: prepositional phrase
Function: Where did the dog smell? (Adverb phrase)


Note that, if it were an adjective, it would tell us more about the dog, and if it were a noun/predicate nominal it would rename the subject (The dog).

d) I am in a bad mood. (is it a prepositional or an adjective phrase ?)

Form: Prepositional phrase
Function: What are you? (Adjective phrase)
How are you? (Adverb phrase)


e) She managed to keep her children off cigarettes. (prepositional phrase ?)

Her children are off cigarettes.
Prepositional phrase in form and adjective phrase in function. 'off cigarettes' tells us more about the subject. It neither renames the subject or tells us where the subject is located in space or time.


Hopefully someone else will answer the rest. :wink:

All the best, :D
 

hela

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Dear Casiopea,

Thank you very much for answering. I'd like to clarify things again if you don't mind.

Quote:
b) Norma was in good health. (SVAs or SVCs ?)


What is Norma? (Adjective)
How is Norma? (Adverb)

So this stce functions as SVAs ?


Quote:
c) He is without a job. (SVAs or SVCs ?)

What is he? (Adjective)
How is he (situated)? (Adverb)

So this stce functions as SVAs ?

Quote:
d) I am in a bad mood. (SVCs ?)

What are you? (Adjective)
How are you? (Adverb)

So this stce functions as SVAs ?


Quote:
e) I am in the classroom. (SVAs ?)

Where are you? (Adverb)

So this stce functions as SVAs ?

But according to Quirk & Greenbaum there are prepositional phrases that can sometimes function as a Subject-Complement and not an Adverbial; and I thought that there would be a difference between:

"I am in a bad mood" or "I am in good health" which could be considered as adjectives because they could be replace by "I am tired" = SVCs;

"I am in the classroom" = where am I? In the classroom = SVAs;

"He is without a job" = "He is jobless" = SVCs ?

If I'm wrong when does a prepositional phrase function as a complement?

Many thanks,
Hela
 

Casiopea

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hela said:
But according to Quirk & Greenbaum there are prepositional phrases that can sometimes function as a Subject-Complement and not an Adverbial

By 'Subject-Complement', do you mean, Predicate adjective? If so, the subject complement is a predicate adjective only if it tells us more about the subject. If it tells us where or when the subject is located, then it functions as an adverb of place or time, respectively.

and I thought that there would be a difference between:

"I am in a bad mood" or "I am in good health" which could be considered as adjectives because they could be replace by "I am tired" = SVCs

The linking verb seem is a better test (i.e., only adjectives occur in that position).

She seems to be in a bad mood. (Predicate Adjective) :D
He seems to be in good health. (Predicate Adjective) :D

Please note, Subject Complement has two sub-categories: 1) Predicate noun, also known as Predicate nominal, and 2) Predicate adjective. The latter are easy to find: She seems ________ . (Predicate adjective always)

"I am in the classroom" = where am I? In the classroom = SVAs;

'in the classroom' functions as an adverb of place: It answers the question "Where?" It tells us where the subject is located in space. :D

"He is without a job" = "He is jobless" = SVCs ?

He seems to be without a job. (Predicate Adjective) :D

All the best, :D
 

Casiopea

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Abusaad said:
Excuse me, what do SVCs and SVAs stand for?

That's a good question. :D

SVC means, Subject+Verb+Subject Complement
SVA means, Subject+Verb+Adverb

All the best, :D
 

hela

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Dear teacher,

I didn't know that a subject complement was also called a "predicate adjective". What I mean by subject complement is the adjective or noun that follows an intensive verb (be, become, feel, seem...).
There are also object complements that follow direct objects. Is there an easy way to recognize them, i.e., to differenciate them from adverbials?

Many thanks,
Hela
 

Casiopea

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hela said:
Dear teacher,

I didn't know that a subject complement was also called a "predicate adjective". What I mean by subject complement is the adjective or noun that follows an intensive verb (be, become, feel, seem...).
There are also object complements that follow direct objects. Is there an easy way to recognize them, i.e., to differenciate them from adverbials?

Many thanks,
Hela

There are two kinds of Subject Complements (SC):

1) Predicate nominals or Predicate nouns
2) Predicate adjectives

SC follow linking verbs. It'd be a good idea if you went on-line and looked for a list of linking verbs. There are many on-line. By the way, linking verbs refer to states of being:

Pat seems tired / Pat = tired


As for Object Complements (OC), they modify the verb's object, like this,

They named him Sam. (OC)

"him" functions as the object of "named", and "Sam" functions as the object of the object (i.e., and Object Complement/OC). The OC modifies, or rather tells us more about the object, 'him'. That is, "Sam is his name."

They named him Sam (OC)
Sam is his name (SC: Predicate noun. Note that, "is" functions as a linking verb: Sam = his name).

Here's how to tell the difference between SCs and OCs. First of all, SCs only occur after linking verbs:

Sam seems nice => Sam = nice.

The verb "seems" links "Sam" with "nice". The Subject "Sam" does not act upon "nice". One equals the other. Thus, the reason for the term "Subject Complement":

Subject + Linking Verb + Subject Complement
EX: Sam is his name. / Sam = his name.

The Subject Complement (SC) tells us more about the Subject, whereas an Object Complement (OC) tells us more about the Object:

Subject + Verb + Object + Object Complement.
EX: They named him Sam.

With OCs, it's usually possible to rephrase the object+object complement by using a form of the verb BE, like this,

Is "Sam" an OCs?
Test: him Sam => He is Sam. (OK) :D

"Sam" of "him Sam" is an OC. Mind you, the test we did, "He is Sam" houses "Sam" as a SC, right?, because in that context "Sam" comes after a linking verb:

him Sam (OC)
He is Sam (SC: Predicate noun)

If you can find a list of linking verbs, you'll be be able to narrow down which sentences house SCs and which do not. :wink:

A quick note on determining function:

Nouns answers the question WHO or WHAT?; Adjectives answer the question WHAT KIND OF?, and Adverbs answer the questions WHERE, WHEN, HOW, and WHY?

EX: She is a doctor. (SC: Predicate noun)
EX: He is nice. (SC: Predicate adjective (i.e., What kind of guy?)
EX: The cat is upstairs. (Adverb: Where is the cat?)

Please note, the adverb "upstairs" doesn't rename the subject (i.e., a predicate noun), nor does it describe the subject (i.e., a predicate adjective). It adds to the meaning of the subject by telling us where, when, how, and why. Given, however, that only Subject Complements follow linking verbs, we could go so far as to suggest that adverbs in that position are technically Predicate adverbs, but one problem with that is this: Adverbs do not modify nominals, and Subject are always nominal. :wink:

All the best, :D
 

hela

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Dear teacher,

Since I'm a very lazy girl, would you please give me on-line addresses for a list of linking verbs? :lol:

Many, many thanks,
Hela
 

Casiopea

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hela said:
Dear teacher,

Since I'm a very lazy girl, would you please give me on-line addresses for a list of linking verbs? :lol:

Many, many thanks,
Hela

Go to your search engine window and type in the words, list of linking verbs. :wink:

Start here: CLICK. :D

All the best, :D
 

hela

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Dear teachers,

I’d like you to be very patient with me because though I studied your explanations very carefully regarding the way to identify some stce elements, I still have difficulties -in some cases- deciding which one is which.

So would you please look at my work and tell me what is wrong and why?

1) A crowd of people came into the room.
a) Subject
b) intr V
c) As (place)

2) I am in the classroom.
a) S
b) int V
c) As (place)


3) She seems to be in a bad mood.
a) S
b) int V
c) Cs (= predicate adjective)

4) I am in a bad mood.
a) S
b) int V
c) Cs

5) He seems to be in good health.
a) S
b) int V
c) Cs

6) Norma was in good health.
a) S
b) int V
c) Cs

7) Norma was sick.
a) S
b) int V
c) Cs


8) He is jobless.
a) S
b) int V
c) Cs

9) He is without a job.
a) S
b) int V
c) Cs or As ?

stces 3) to 9) are all the same? They all act as adjectives?


10) She sent him the fax.
a) S
b) tran V
c) Oi
d) Od

11) The children are with me.
a) S
b) int V
c) As (place)


12) The squirrel feasted into the night.
a) S
b) intr V
c) As (time)

13) The squirrel feasted on birdseed into the night.
a) S
b) tran V
c) Od
d) As (time)

14) The animals were feasting on lots of good food.
a) S
b) tran V
c) Od


15) She managed to keep her children off cigarettes.
a) S
b) tran V
c) Od

15) She managed to keep her children off cigarettes.
a) S
b) tran V
c) Od
d) Co or Ao (manner) ?


16) Her children are off cigarettes.
a) S
b) int V
c) Cs

17) The dog smelled hungrily at the package.
a) S
b) intr / tran V ?
c) As (manner)
d) As (place) / Od ?

18) She is writing on the blackboard.
a) S
b) intran V
c) As (place)

19) She is respected by her students.
a) S
b) intran V
c) ???

20) Pat is tired.
a) S
b) int V
c) Cs

21) That sounds a good idea.
a) S
b) int V
c) Cs

22) You smell nice.
a) S
b) int V
c) Cs

23) Before the play, we met up in a pub near the theatre.
a) As (time)
b) S
c) intr V
d) As (place)

24) We parted good friends.
a) S
b) trans V / intrans V ?
c) Cs ?

Thank you very much. May I send you more stces for correction, please ?

Hela
 

Casiopea

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No problem. I've looked over your sentences and I have three comments. :D

A. He is without a job. (Adjective)

Note, if 'without a job' were a location, then it would function as an adverb. Note also, the only linking verb that can have an adverb of place as its subject complement is the verb To Be and its forms (i.e., is, am, are, etc.) :D

Note also, linking verbs, and that includes the verb To Be, can never be modified by an adverb of manner. Only action verbs can be modified by adverbs of manner. :wink:

B. She managed to keep her children off cigarettes. (Object Complement)

Note, TEST: her children are off cigarettes. :D

C. She is respected by her students. (Semantic Subject; Passive)

Here's a great source of help: The Six Basic Sentence Patterns Click Here.

By the way, linking verbs are linking verbs, not intransitive verbs. Also, SC stands for Subject Complement, of which there are two kinds: predicate adjectives and predicate nominals/nouns. I am not familiar with the forms Cs and As. Sorry. :oops: Moreover, DO stands for direct object and IO for indirect object. :D

All the best, :D
 

salas1907

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Student or Learner
I want you to ask sthg,casiopea...can you help me? I have an syntax exam on wednesday...I couldn't understand mood in syntax. what is the meaning 'residue' in syntax? Also can you explain 'theme' in syntax?
 
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