[Grammar] time trial & time attack

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kadioguy

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1.
In the OALD9, it says:

time trial
noun
(in cycle racing and some other sports) a race in which the people who are taking part race on their own in as fast a time as possible, instead of racing against each other at the same time
------
Why not ...taking part in race...?
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2.
In the Oxford Dictionary of English 3rd, it says:

time attack
Fencing
noun
An attack by means of which one may gain time on one's opponent, especially one launched when he or she has only just begun to prepare an attack.
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Do 'one' mean 'someone' and 'he or she' mean 'someone's opponent'?


Would you be so kind as to help me? Thanks!

PS I also posted the same question on this, but all of your answers are unique to me. Hope we can discuss with each other. Thank you.
 

emsr2d2

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"One" means "a person". It's used to avoid having to use "he/she". So yes, you're understanding is correct.
 

kadioguy

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An attack by means of which one (a person) may gain time on one's opponent, especially one (a person) launched when he or she has only just begun to prepare an attack.
-----------
Does it mean this?

And how about my first question...:)? Thank you so much.
 

Roman55

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No, it means this.


An attack by means of which one (a person) may gain time on one's opponent, especially one (an attack) launched when he or she has only just begun to prepare an attack.


As for the first question, the 'in' comes earlier in the sentence. 'a race in which the people who are taking part race...'


It means, 'a race that the people who are taking part in race...' but the original is a better, clearer sentence.
 

kadioguy

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Thank you!

Does 'he or she' refer to one (a person) or one's opponent?
 

Roman55

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I don't know much about fencing and it isn't very clear to a layman, but I would assume it refers to one's opponent.
 

kadioguy

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As for my first question, how do you think the answer in another forum:

[FONT=Tahoma, Calibri, Verdana, Geneva, sans-serif]the people who are taking part = Subject[/FONT]
[FONT=Tahoma, Calibri, Verdana, Geneva, sans-serif]
[/FONT]
[FONT=Tahoma, Calibri, Verdana, Geneva, sans-serif]race = Verb[/FONT]
 

Lynxear

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1.

(in cycle racing and some other sports) a race in which the people who are taking part race on their own in as fast a time as possible, instead of racing against each other at the same time.
------

In this context "race" is a verb not a noun. I think commas are necessary to show this properly.

"a race in which the people, who are taking part, race on their own in as fast a time as possible."

The clause "who are taking part" modifies "people".


time attack
Fencing
noun

An attack by means of which one may gain time on one's opponent, especially one launched when he or she has only just begun to prepare an attack.

This is a confusing sentence fragment because "one" has to two different references. The first "one" and "one's" refer to a fencer and the second "one" refers to the "attack". I have replaced the confusing "one"s and "he or she" so it will be easier to see.

Original sentence:

An attack by means of which one may gain time on one's opponent, especially one launched when he or she has only just begun to prepare an attack.

Modified sentence:

An attack by means of which a fencer may gain time on his opponent, especially an attack launched when the opponent has only just begun to prepare an attack.

I think the above discussion makes it clearer.
 
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GoesStation

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As for my first question, [strike]how[/strike] what do you think ​about the answer in another forum:

the people who are taking part = Subject


race = Verb
That's correct.
 
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