[Grammar] What parts of speech are these words?

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Dawood Usmani

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Hi dear teachers!
What parts of speech are the following underlined words? Are these modal verbs that show future like will? Please explain......

1- The train is about to leave.
2- She is going to buy a car.

Thanks a million
Dawood
 

sarat_106

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Hi dear teachers!
What parts of speech are the following underlined words? Are these modal verbs that show future like will? Please explain......

1- The train is about to leave.
2- She is going to buy a car.

Thanks a million
Dawood

1. Here "about" is functioning as an adverb.
2. "going' is "ing" form of verb "go" used here as another form of future continuous: be going to. You can also express this sentence as: She will be buying a car.
 

Dawood Usmani

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1. Here "about" is functioning as an adverb.
2. "going' is "ing" form of verb "go" used here as another form of future continuous: be going to. You can also express this sentence as: She will be buying a car.
But my question remains unanswered. My question was what is going in that sentence, whether an adjective, adverb, a noun or something else? I already know all the uses of be going to but only want to know what word is this while being used for future.
Hope to get an expert anser soon.
Looking forward to the answer.....
 

opa6x57

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But my question remains unanswered. My question was what is going in that sentence, whether an adjective, adverb, a noun or something else? I already know all the uses of be going to but only want to know what word is this while being used for future.
Hope to get an expert anser soon.
Looking forward to the answer.....


In the above sentence, going is a predicate adjective.

Subject: she
Verb: is (linking verb)
Predicate adjective: going
Adjectival clause describing 'going': to buy a car
 

Dawood Usmani

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In the above sentence, going is a predicate adjective.

Subject: she
Verb: is (linking verb)
Predicate adjective: going
Adjectival clause describing 'going': to buy a car
Very smart answer!
Thanks for helpful explanation. Also, do you agree with the above poster that about is an adverb in the train is about to leave? As far as I think it's an adjective too.
What do you say?
 

opa6x57

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Very smart answer!
Thanks for helpful explanation. Also, do you agree with the above poster that about is an adverb in the train is about to leave? As far as I think it's an adjective too.
What do you say?


If you diagram that sentence, you get:

Subject: The train
Verb: is (again, linking verb)

So - "about to leave" is a prepositional phrase describing what the train is. The phrase is a predicate adjective, but the word about is a preposition.



Please note: I found that predicate adjective is also referred to as subjective complement ... I've personally never heard that particular term before, however.
 

svartnik

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Hi dear teachers!
What parts of speech are the following underlined words? Are these modal verbs that show future like will? Please explain......

1- The train is about to leave.
2- She is going to buy a car.

Thanks a million
Dawood

be (about ) to, be going to are semi-auxiliaries.

to buy a car is an adjective complement, but not an adjective, mind.
 

Dawood Usmani

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If you diagram that sentence, you get:

Subject: The train
Verb: is (again, linking verb)

So - "about to leave" is a prepositional phrase describing what the train is. The phrase is a predicate adjective, but the word about is a preposition.



Please note: I found that predicate adjective is also referred to as subjective complement ... I've personally never heard that particular term before, however.
But prepositions (except but and except) never take infinitive. Do they? Conversely, they take gerund. Don't they?
 

opa6x57

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about is an adverb in

The train is about to leave.


I apologize for my earlier mistake ...

But, I must disagree with svartnik, here...

Since the sentence uses a linking verb (is), rather than an action verb, then the word about is a predicate adjective - since it renames the subject of the sentence.

"To leave" then - is an infinitive used to describe 'about'. So - since it describes an adjective - it's an adverb.

Subject complement - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

If the sentence were this: "The train ran slowly."
Then, slowly would be an adverb describing how the train ran.
 

Dawood Usmani

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I apologize for my earlier mistake ... ( Which mistake are you talking about?)

But, I must disagree with svartnik, here...

Since the sentence uses a linking verb (is), rather than an action verb, then the word about is a predicate adjective - since it renames the subject of the sentence.

"To leave" then - is an infinitive used to describe 'about'. So - since it describes an adjective - it's an adverb.

Subject complement - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

If the sentence were this: "The train ran slowly."
Then, slowly would be an adverb describing how the train ran.
Oh, I'm mixed up now. I've developed so much confusion now. Well, can an infinitive be ever an adverb?
 

opa6x57

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Yes, infinitives can be adverbs.


Here's a snippet from a web page that might be helpful. This came from this page: Lessons 231- 235 - Verbals - Adverb Infinitives



Lesson 233 - Verbals - Adverb Infinitives
An infinitive is to plus a verb form. It can be used as an adverb. Examples: to be, to see, to be seen, to be eaten.

Adverb infinitives are used to modify predicate adjectives.

An infinitive phrase is made up of an infinitive and any complements (direct objects, predicate nominatives, predicate adjectives, or modifiers.)

An infinitive phrase that comes at the beginning of the sentence is always followed by a comma and modifies the subject of the sentence.

Find the infinitives or infinitive phrases in these sentences and tell what word they modify.

1. The van is ready to go.
2. You are sure to meet him again.
3. My horse is hard to catch.
4. I am happy to be of service.
5. Joan is likely to change her mind.

Answers
1. to go modifies the predicate adjective ready
2. to meet him again modifies the predicate adjective sure
3. to catch modifies the predicate adjective hard
4. to be of service modifies the predicate adjective happy
5. to change her mind modifies the predicate adjective likely



Example #1 is very similar to your original posted sentence, right?
 

Dawood Usmani

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Yes, infinitives can be adverbs.


Here's a snippet from a web page that might be helpful. This came from this page: Lessons 231- 235 - Verbals - Adverb Infinitives



Lesson 233 - Verbals - Adverb Infinitives
An infinitive is to plus a verb form. It can be used as an adverb. Examples: to be, to see, to be seen, to be eaten.

Adverb infinitives are used to modify predicate adjectives.

An infinitive phrase is made up of an infinitive and any complements (direct objects, predicate nominatives, predicate adjectives, or modifiers.)

An infinitive phrase that comes at the beginning of the sentence is always followed by a comma and modifies the subject of the sentence.

Find the infinitives or infinitive phrases in these sentences and tell what word they modify.

1. The van is ready to go.
2. You are sure to meet him again.
3. My horse is hard to catch.
4. I am happy to be of service.
5. Joan is likely to change her mind.

Answers
1. to go modifies the predicate adjective ready
2. to meet him again modifies the predicate adjective sure
3. to catch modifies the predicate adjective hard
4. to be of service modifies the predicate adjective happy
5. to change her mind modifies the predicate adjective likely



Example #1 is very similar to your original posted sentence, right?
Wow, how interesting! I didn't know all that before. Well, I'm enjoying getting more knowledge.
But ealier you said 'about' is a preposition so how can we say now that 'to leave' is describing the word 'about' which is an adjective. What exactly is the word 'about'?
 
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opa6x57

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But ealier you said 'about' is a preposition so how can we say now that 'to leave' is describing the word 'about' which is an adjective. What exactly is the word 'about'?

The word 'about' can be a preposition - but not in this case.

opa6x57: I apologize for my earlier mistake ...
 

svartnik

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Thanks for your help. If about is an adverb, what kind of adverb is it? Also, what is "to leave" then? Please explain.

He is about to leave. ~ He is to leave. = SVC

He = S
is = V (linking verb)
to leave = predicate adjective
about = temporal adverb, modifying the adjectival clause in the predicate.
 

philo2009

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Hi dear teachers!
What parts of speech are the following underlined words? Are these modal verbs that show future like will? Please explain......

1- The train is about to leave.
2- She is going to buy a car.

Thanks a million
Dawood

ABOUT: temporal adverb (=soon, shortly), modifying copula

GOING: present/active participle* of 'go', complementing 'is'

* A participle is a verbal adjective, a syntactic 'hybrid': like the gerund (a verbal noun) it cannot be definitively classified according to the traditional system of parts of speech. Depending on context, however, its force may be predominantly adjectival or predominantly verbal. In this case, as a core constituent of the VP 'is going', it possesses a predominantly verbal force.
 
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Pedroski

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Hey Philo, was that directed at me? I didn't say nuffink! Do you have a good explanation for -ing forms? Anything new? I'd like to hear it!
I didn't know the 'is' in 'is going' was a copula. I thought it was an auxiliary, tense-giving verb, as 'going' is tenseless. Is this something new?
 

philo2009

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Hey Philo, was that directed at me?
Not in the least. It was directed at the questioner.
(Really, Pedro, you're becoming quite paranoid! :))


I didn't know the 'is' in 'is going' was a copula. I thought it was an auxiliary, tense-giving verb, as 'going' is tenseless. Is this something new?
You are quite right. That was an extremely careless error, which has now been rectified (word 'copula' deleted). Thank you for your vigilance!
 
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