I just joined this forum, and I wish to improve my command of the english language, thanks!
may I start by asking which of the following is correct:
1. "everyone has to .... " or "everyone have to"
2. "the data is invalid" or "the data are invalid", if I'm referring to pages and pages of 'data'
3. "are anyone interested" or "is anyone interested"
4. "the information contains" or "the information contain" - is information countable?
5. "run toward her" or "run towards her" - and why?
6. "with regard to" or "with regards to" - and why?
7. "several types of cars" or "several types of car"
8. "help him clean the house" or "help him to clean the house"
1. In most cases, "everyone" is singular in American English. The word means "every one" as as individual. There are times, as was pointed out that logic dictates that "everyone" or "everybody" is meant to be plural, but it is rare.
2. The word "data" is the Latinized plural of "datum", so it is technically a plural word. However, there has been a split in the meaning of data. In the scientific and mathematical world, "data" is an accumulation of sepecific points or values. Scientists say "The data are clear." In the computer and information world, "data" is information. The cupmuter person says "The data was enetered." One's use should depend on one's audience.
3. "Anyone and "anybody" are clearly singular.
4. Information is usually uncountable. This means that it is usually not pluralized. But that has nothing to do with the verb choice. It is a singular noun.
5. Toward amd towards are used interchangeably. I believe that British English favors "towards" and American English favors "toward" but neither is incorrect.
6. It should be "with regard to". Regard means "concern" and is a noun. "Regards" as a noun refers to good wishes. "Give him my regards." There is an idiom "as regards" which is related to "with regard to". This is the usage note from AHD:
USAGE NOTE Regard is traditionally used in the singular in the phrase in regard (not in regards) to. Regarding and as regards are also standard in the sense “with reference to.” In the same sense with respect to is acceptable, but respecting is not.•Respects is sometimes considered preferable to regards in the sense of “particulars”: In some respects (not regards) the books are alike.
7. With this phrase, you will hear both forms. There is a small technical difference, but this matters little to most speakers. "Types of car" is probably the most defendable from a technical standpoint, but "types of cars" is probably more common in use.
8. Either form is acceptable. In both cases "clean" is an infinitive. One is a "to" infinitive and the other is a bare infinitive. The verb help takes either.