Who is referred to as...

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subhajit123

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Are all the following sentences correct and do they mean the same?

1- Who is referred to as 'The father of the nation' in India?

3- Who is referred by 'The father of the nation' in India?

2- Whom does 'The father of the nation' refer to in India?
 

GoesStation

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The sentences labeled 1 and 2 (i.e., the first and third sentences) would be completely correct if the first "the" were not capitalized. Number 3 (the second one) would be correct if you corrected the capitalization error and inserted "to" after referred.
 

subhajit123

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The sentences labeled 1 and 2 (i.e., the first and third sentences) would be completely correct if the first "the" were not capitalized. Number 3 (the second one) would be correct if you corrected the capitalization error and inserted "to" after referred.

Sorry, I should have posted them serially. Sorry for the inconvenience. I did not notice that.
 

subhajit123

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The sentences labeled 1 and 2 (i.e., the first and third sentences) would be completely correct if the first "the" were not capitalized. Number 3 (the second one) would be correct if you corrected the capitalization error and inserted "to" after referred.

Do 'referred to as' and 'referred to by' mean the same?
 

GoesStation

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Do 'referred to as' and 'referred to by' mean the same?
No. Mr. Watson was always referred to as "Doc". That means he was called "Doc Watson".

I may have misled you about the second sentence, sentence number 3. You could write Gandhi was referred to by Indians as "the father of the nation".​ That means that Indians called Mr. Gandhi "the father of the nation". If you revise the sentence as I suggested in post #3, it would ask the question, "Whom did the father of the nation mention?" I don't think that's what you had in mind.
 
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