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Acrostics
An acrostic is a poem where the first letter of each line form a word or phrase when read together. 


Antecedent
An antecedent is a word, phrase or clause that determines what a pronoun that follows refers to.


Archaic Language
Words and phrases that were used regularly in a language, but are now less common are archaic. Such words and phrases are often used deliberately to refer to earlier times. For instance, the pronoun 'thou', which is very rarely used nowadays is an archaism, which is sometimes used to suggest...


Cliche
A Cliché is a Phrase that is used excessively and has become a bit meaningless and even irritating. SAMPLE CLICHES: Always look on the bright sight of life To be or not to be Live and learn Live and let live C'est la vie Que sera, sera What goes around...


Cataphora
Words or phrases like pronouns are cataphora when they point forwards to something later on in the text: As he was unaccustomed to it, Jake found the pressure very hard to deal with. Here, it is cataphoric because it refers forwards to the noun pressure.


Apposition
Apposition is when a noun or noun phrase is placed next to another that explains it: RS Thomas, the poet, died a few years ago. Here, RS Thomas and the poet are in apposition, the second phrase explaining the first..


Anaphora
Words or phrases like pronouns are anaphora when they point backwards to something earlier in the text: Helen needed the book and asked me to hurry up with it. Here, it is anaphoric because it refers back to the noun book.   The term is also used for the repetition...


Appositive
An appositive is a noun or noun phrase is placed next to another that gives some information, explanation or renames it: The dog, a West Highland White, started barking. a West Highland White, is the appositive, giving the dog's breed.


Conjunctions
A conjunction is a word like AND, BUT, WHEN, OR, etc., which connects words, phrases or clauses.


Antimetabole
Antimetabole is a rhetorical device where a word or a phrase in one clause or phrase is repeated in the opposite order in the next clause or phrase:The absence of evidence is not the evidence of absence.


Anadiplosis
Anadiplosis is a rhetorical device where a word or phrase at the end of a sentence or phrase is repeated at the beginning of the next sentence or phrase. Here, we don't accept failure.  Failure is not an option. 


Case
Case is used in some languages to show the function of a Noun or Noun Phrase in a sentence by Inflection.English nouns have two cases:The dog (General case)The dog's (Genitive case- indicating possession)Personal Pronouns have three cases:he (Subject case)him (Object case)his (Genitive case)Other languages can have more or fewer cases...


Dangling Modifiers
Dangling modifiers, or misplaced modifiers, are words, phrases or clauses where it is unclear which element of the sentence they are modifying, because they could either be modifying the subject or object. Having trouble sleeping, the TV helps me get through the night. Having trouble sleeping is a dangling modifier...


Acronyms
An acronym is a kind of abbreviation. It is a word formed by taking letters from a phrase that is too long to use comfortably. eg: Laser is an acronym of Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation If the letters do not make a word, but are pronounced individually,...


Ambigram
An ambigram is a word that can be read from different angles, like or MOW or NOON that can be turned through 180 degrees and still be read as the same words. It is a visual similarity, unlike a palindrome like madam, where the letters are the same if the word or...


Active
English verbs can be in either the Active or the Passive Voice. Voice shows the relationship between the verb and the noun phrases. In a sentence in the active, the person or thing that performed the action is the Subject of the Verb. eg: I wrote the letter. In a...


Cockney Rhyming Slang
Cockney Rhyming Slang is a specialised form of slang used in the East of London. It is a kind of antilanguage where words are replaced by phrases that rhyme (sound the same): North and south = mouth Adam and Eve = believe Sometimes, the last word is dropped, which can...


Adjective
Adjectives are one of the major parts of speech in English. They modify a noun or noun phrase. Often called describing words, they describe the quality, state or action that a noun refers to. They can be used to distinguish a particular noun- the red car distinguishes one car by colour from the others. Adjectives are...


Complement
A complement is the part of a Sentence that comes after the Verb and is needed to make the sentence complete. The following are the most important types of complement used in English:SUBJECT COMPLEMENTEg: He's a surveyor. (The Subject is completed by the complement to the verb. This is a...


Adverbs
Most adverbs in English are formed by adding -ly to an Adjective. An adverb is a word that modifies the meaning of a Verb; an Adjective; another adverb; a Noun or Noun Phrase; Determiner; a Numeral; a Pronoun; or a Prepositional Phrase and can sometimes be used as a Complement...


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