Re: what is the meaning of this phrase?
Hi and welcome to Using English.
When you get "caught up" in something, it takes all of your attention. You can get caught up in your work, a gripping movie, or other things in the short-term. You can get caught up in an entire situation (the publicity or fame of a situation) in the long-term.
If you're caught up in your problems, you're focusing on them to the exclusion of many other things in your life.
I'm not a teacher, but I write for a living. Please don't ask me about 2nd conditionals, but I'm a safe bet for what reads well in (American) English.