You write well. The only suggestion that I would make here is to italicize the titles, Plato’s Republic and Critique of Pure Reason, as well as the phrases, panta rei and cogito ergo sum.
You might also wish to expand your piece by providing examples that buttress your statements. For example, when you write --
My professors amaze me with their ability to clearly elaborate on any subject, but they never apply their timeless wisdom to reality. Instead of rigorously debating the problems of today, my professors lull us to sleep with lackluster lectures on trivial topics. Our grades are determined by how well we can regurgitate uninspiring thoughts.-- some real-life classroom examples that illustrate the "lackluster lectures," "trivial topics," and "regurgitating uninspiring thoughts" would help to support your argument here.
Finally, what about offering some real-life examples of how you might see philosophy as "the purest form of dissent" and dissent as "the highest form of ascent?" Expanding on your thoughts in this way will bring greater weight to your piece.
Congratulations on your approaching graduation. - Best of luck