Meaning an instance of something has just occurred that was previously discussed. For instance, a person may have told another that something always happens. Later that day, they see it happening, and the informer might say, 'case in point'.
If somebody tells you to cast your mind back on something, they want you to think about something that happened in the past, but which you might not remember very well, and to try to remember as much as possible.
(USA) When I used to ask my grandma what was for dinner, she would say 'cat fur and kitty britches'. This was her Ozark way of telling me that I would get what she cooked. (Ozark is a region in the center of the United States)
(UK) The idiom "cat fur and kitty britches" reminded me of this saying that my granny used when asked what was for dinner, and was her way too of saying you get what you're given! This was in Gloucestershire, UK and in the first part of the 20th century.