Bread and butter, here, indicate the means of one’s living. (That is why we say ‘he is the bread winner of the family’). If a sub-ordinate in an organisation is quarrelsome or if he is not patient enough to bear the reprimand he deserves, gets angry and retorts or provokes the higher-up, the top man dismisses him from the job. So, he loses the job that gave him bread and butter. Hence we say, he quarrelled with bread and butter (manager or the top man) and lost his job.
If you quit you will never get what you want, but if you keep trying you will find a way to get what you want. ('Quitters never win, winners never quit, but those who never win and never quit are idiots' is a variation accredited to Larry Kersten)
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