It's possible but it seems rather illogical. People usually go away on holiday in order to escape the stress of day-to-day life and in order to avoid becoming a "basket case". If someone came back from a holiday and said they were now a "basket case", I would expect them to go on to explain why their holiday was so terrible, all the things that went wrong and what led to that state of mind.
I asked my colleague to explain why she feels she is a basket case. She explained that now she has so much to do in the office after being away for a week and she is not sure if she can handle her work.