ghosts appearing or ghosts who appear

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Bushwhacker

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In the following sentence:

Ghosts appearing in the story are those of a day without night.

or should it be:

Ghosts who appear in the story...

Or both are possible?

Thank You
 
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Tdol

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What do you mean by "are those of a day without night"?
 
Joined
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Hi Bushwhacker,

Same meaning. Both are possible.

-ing , past particle (-ed) or being+ past particle (-ed) are often similar to defining relative clauses with which, who or that.

Example:

There is a river dividing the two countries / There is a river which divides the two countries.

In the case of -ing clauses, they are often used instead of defining relative clauses with an active verb.

Examples:

The teacher explaining the idiomatic phrases / The teacher who is explaining the idiomatic phrases.

Nevertheless, in some cases you cannot use -ing clauses as an alternative to defining relative clauses:

1. Obviously, a single, completed action described in the defining relative clause, and different from a continuous or line process.

Example:

The teacher who explained the idiomatic phrase (not The teacher explaining…).

2. Clauses with a noun between the relative pronoun and the verb in the defining relative clause.

Example:

The teacher who I am talking with is very good (but not The teacher I talking…).

3. When the event described in the defining relative clause takes place before the event described in the rest of the sentence.

Example:

The lesson which was given by the teacher was understood by the students (not The lesson giving by the…).

However, there is an exception to this third rule when the second event in the sentence derives or results from the first one.

Example:

The lesson which was given by the lecturer caused a lively conversation among students (or The lesson giving by the lecturer…)

Regards,

José Manuel Rosón Bravo
 
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