[Grammar] therefore reducing emissions.

ambitious-girl

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Hi,

I can't understand why the writer used -ing form of verb here:

"They could also impose ‘green taxes’ on drivers and airline companies. In this way, people would be encouraged to use public transport and (they would be encourage) to take fewer flights abroad, therefore reducing emissions."

Thanks.
 

GoesStation

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People would drive and fly less, which would reduce emissions. "Thereby reducing emissions" means "leading to reduced emissions."
 

andrewg927

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Hi,

I can't understand why the writer used -ing form of verb here:

"They could also impose ‘green taxes’ on drivers and airline companies. In this way, people would be encouraged to use public transport and (they would be encourage) to take fewer flights abroad, therefore reducing emissions."

Thanks.

I'm not sure if I understand your question "why". Do you have a better suggestion for the verb there?
 

ambitious-girl

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Because it fits perfectly, a-g. What would you suggest?
I know that 'therefore', 'however', 'hence', 'nevertheless', .. are conjunctive adverbs. They have to connects two independent clauses.
I always think those adverbs can only be used within a clause as the following:

For example:
We were unable to get funding; therefore we had to abandon the project.
We were unable to get funding. Therefore we had to abandon the project.
We were unable to get funding. We, therefore, had to abandon the project.
I no longer have the support of the committee. I have therefore decided to resign.

I don't know we can also use the following, too:

We were unable to get funding, and therefore had to abandon the project.
The new boots are lighter and softer, and therefore more comfortable to wear.


 
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ambitious-girl

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I know that 'therefore', 'however', 'hence', 'nevertheless', .. are conjunctive adverbs. They have to connects two independent clauses.
I always think those adverbs can only be used within a clause as the following:

For example:
We were unable to get funding; therefore we had to abandon the project.
We were unable to get funding. Therefore we had to abandon the project.
We were unable to get funding. We, therefore, had to abandon the project.
I no longer have the support of the committee. I have therefore decided to resign.

I don't know we can also use the following, too:

We were unable to get funding, and therefore had to abandon the project.
The new boots are lighter and softer, and therefore more comfortable to wear.


In this way, people would be encouraged to use public transport and (they would be encourage) to take fewer flights abroad, therefore reducing emissions."
I am still confused why we use 'ing' form after adverbs, because we always use 'ing' form after prepositions not adverbs.
 

ambitious-girl

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You got it right.
In this way, people would be encouraged to use public transport and (they would be encourage) to take fewer flights abroad, therefore reducing emissions."
I am still confused why we use 'ing' form after adverbs, because we always use 'ing' form after prepositions not adverbs.
 

andrewg927

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I am still confused why we use 'ing' form after adverbs, because we always use 'ing' form after prepositions not adverbs.

Here are a few examples we use the "ing" form following an adverb:

She is always giving to charities.
She
is anxiously waiting for the exam.
He is gladly accepting their present.

We do NOT always use "ing" after a preposition. E.g. I'm going to work. (to is a preposition but we don't use the "ing" here).
 

ambitious-girl

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Here are a few examples we use the "ing" form following an adverb:

She is always giving to charities.
She
is anxiously waiting for the exam.
He is gladly accepting their present.
In your examples above, you have subject + verb + ing . However, in my example, we only have 'ing' form and there is not any subject .
 

ambitious-girl

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I'm not sure if I understand your question "why". Do you have a better suggestion for the verb there?
YES.
"They could also impose ‘green taxes’ on drivers and airline companies. In this way, people would be encouraged to use public transport and (they would be encourage) to take fewer flights abroad, therefore the emissions would probably be reduced."
 

andrewg927

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YES.
"They could also impose ‘green taxes’ on drivers and airline companies. In this way, people would be encouraged to use public transport and (they would be encourage) to take fewer flights abroad, therefore the emissions would probably be reduced."

Good suggestion! Except make the phrase a sentence. "....fewer flights abroad. Therefore the emissions would probably be reduced."
 

andrewg927

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In your examples above, you have subject + verb + ing . However, in my example, we only have 'ing' form and there is not any subject .

OK. I think I understand why you were confused. The subject was "the fact that people use more public transport and take less flight". That fact leads to the potential reduction in emissions.
 

ambitious-girl

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OK. I think I understand why you were confused. The subject was "the fact that people use more public transport and take less flight". That fact leads to the potential reduction in emissions.
Sorry, I didn't understand what you said.
 

ambitious-girl

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Good suggestion! Except make the phrase a sentence. "....fewer flights abroad. Therefore the emissions would probably be reduced."
Is following OK , too?

"They could also impose ‘green taxes’ on drivers and airline companies. In this way, people would be encouraged to use public transport, to take fewer flights abroad, and therefore the emissions would probably be reduced."
 

GoesStation

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The version with "thereby reducing emissions" is more succinct.
 

ambitious-girl

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The version with "thereby reducing emissions" is more succinct.
Why? both of them have the same meaning. You all just suggest I have to use 'thereby' , but you don't explain why. In this way, I have to memories all these rules in English without knowing and learning them.
 

GoesStation

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"Succinct" means "short". Here's the long version: "...and therefore the emissions would probably be reduced." The succinct one: "...thereby reducing emissions." When the choice exists, it's nearly always best to use fewer words in your writing.

I don't know how to explain the grammar. Perhaps one of the grammarians on the forum will chime in.
 

andrewg927

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Is following OK , too?

"They could also impose ‘green taxes’ on drivers and airline companies. In this way, people would be encouraged to use public transport, to take fewer flights abroad, and therefore the emissions would probably be reduced."

Yes. The sentence is correct.
 

andrewg927

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Sorry, I didn't understand what you said.

You were asking what was the subject that precedes "therefore reducing emissions." The subject was the clause before it.
 

andrewg927

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Why? both of them have the same meaning. You all just suggest I have to use 'thereby' , but you don't explain why. In this way, I have to memories all these rules in English without knowing and learning them.

I would keep "therefore". You do NOT have to use "thereby". "therefore" is correct as it is.
 

andrewg927

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Robert, therefore literally means for that reason. Here is an example taken straight from Meriam Webster: the cell phone is thin and light and therefore convenient to carry around. There is no suggestion of action in this example. It just means because the phone is light it is easy to carry. In the OP, you could say people take fewer flights and for that reason emissions will be reduced.
 
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