To learn is to introduce new facts and operations into your brain. To study is the method you use in order to learn. Reading books and thinking about ideas. Studying is a deliberate thing with books and information.
Learning can be a broader thing. We can learn how to drive a car, or learn what menu items are good at a restaurant. It's not just about books and sitting down to think.
But one can say "I am learning Spanish" and "I am studying Spanish." They mean the same thing in that case.
And, yes, English is full of words that can mean the same thing, or have slight variations in meaning and connotation. We have in the past and continue to borrow words from all languages.