We have gone some way to ____ the problem, but we haven't completely solved it.
the others I don't think they match
I think "We have gone some way toward rectifying the problem..." is even stronger .
You can not use the word rectifying because it is written is the present form. If you would look at the main verb gone it is written in past tense, so therefore you should write rectify in past tense.
I agree with "petershank". Your comment expresses a more dynamic statement.