What would you say to the notion that a penalty and a sentence can be very similar things.
A footballer who badly flouts the rules in a game sometimes has to turn up to a tribunal. That tribunal can give him a 3 match suspension - which some might describe as a hard sentence, and others a harsh penalty.
Payment is not necessarily involved in a penalty, of course. A penalty in sport might be a free kick to other side. A player might be sentenced to 10 minutes on the bench (a colloquial use of 'sentence').
As usual, context helps.